3 WILBERFORCE INTRODUCED A BILL TO END SLAVERY IN BRITAIN AND ITSCOLONIES EVERY YEAR BEGINNINGIN 1790.HE SUCCEEDED IN 1833
4 BUT THE WORLD’S LABORERS LOOKED TO THE FREE NORTH TO SAVE “THE GREAT REPUBLICAN EXPERIMENT”British Poor LawsCould even separateWomen from their children
5 THE GREAT REPUBLICAN DREAM VS. COTTON & ARISTOCRACY
6 The SouthAristocratic roots shared with England’s ruling elite – Palmerston sympatheticTight trade relationship
7 DEPENDENT ON BRITISH GOODS - $200 million worth of goods to South during war Enfield rifle for both sides. Increasingly go to Remington & Colt during war.Shoes for SouthUniforms for SouthCSS Alabama built in LiverpoolRams built for South in EnglandU.S. made legal claims against G.B. for abuse of neutrality
8 KING COTTONIn 1858 Senator James Henry Hammond of South Carolina replied to Senator William H. Seward of New York:"Without the firing of a gun, without drawing a sword, should they [Northerners] make war upon us [Southerners], we could bring the whole world to our feet. What would happen if no cotton was furnished for three years? . . England would topple headlong and carry the whole civilized world with her. No, you dare not make war on cotton! No power on earth dares make war upon it. Cotton is King."
9 KING COTTONSouthern plantations generated three-fourths of the world's cotton supply.The states that entered the Confederate States accounted for 70 percent of total US exports, and the Confederate leaders believed that this wouldgive the new nation a firm financial basis.
10 BLOCKADENow therefore I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States...have further deemed it advisable to set on foot a blockade of the ports within the States aforesaid, in pursuance of the laws of theUnited States and of the Law of Nations in such case provided.For this purpose a competent force will be posted so as to prevent entrance and exit of vessels from the ports aforesaid.
14 Mass Starvation in British Cotton Mills Brought the beginning of the British Social System & a more humane approach than the Poor LawsCaused Britain to turn to Indian cotton
15 DEPRIVATIONThe starving in the British cotton mills led to the world’s first welfare programs.NONETHELESS, MOST of the workers supported THE GREAT REPUBLICAN EXPERIMENT.
16 What went wrong with Cotton Diplomacy? 1860 – Bumper crop – Glut on world marketEMBARGO deprived South of cash to buy weapons, etc.Southerners found the embargo too painful, and they cooperated in running more than 1 ½ million bales of cotton through the northern blockade.Cotton successfully grown in Egypt & IndiaBritish textile workers act against self-interest & SUPPORT THE NORTHEMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION
17 Gettysburg Address, Nov. 1863 Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation or any nation so conceived and so dedicated can long endure…It is rather for us the living, to here be dedicated to the great task remaining before us-that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they here gave the last measure of devotion-that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain, that this nation shall have a new birth of freedom.
18 KING CORN U.S. INCREASED EXPORT OF GRAIN TO G.B. DURING THE WAR BRITISH FOUND THEMSELVES MORE DEPENDENT ON U.S. GRAIN THAN ON ITS COTTON
19 CORN WINS See documents. Lincoln & the workingmen of Manchester 1863 George Griswold carried donated bacon, bread, rice, corn, barrels of flour
20 Extract of the Address from the Working People of Manchester to His Excellency Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States of America. Public Meeting, Free Trade Hall, Manchester, 31 December 1862."...the vast progress which you have made in the short space of twenty months fills us with hope that every stain on your freedom will shortly be removed, and that the erasure of that foul blot on civilisation and Christianity - chattel slavery - during your presidency, will cause the name of Abraham Lincoln to be honoured and revered by posterity. We are certain that such a glorious consummation will cement Great Britain and the United States in close and enduring regards."
21 LINCOLNExtract of the President Abraham Lincoln's letter in response to the Working People of Manchester 19 January, 1863"...I know and deeply deplore the sufferings which the working people of Manchester and in all Europe are called to endure in this crisis. It has been often and studiously represented that the attempt to overthrow this Government which was built on the foundation of human rights, and to substitute for it one which should rest exclusively on the basis of slavery, was unlikely to obtain the favour of Europe."Through the action of disloyal citizens, the working people of Europe have been subjected to a severe trial for the purpose of forcing their sanction to that attempt. Under the circumstances I cannot but regard your decisive utterances on the question as an instance of sublime Christian heroism which has not been surpassed in any age or in any country. It is indeed an energetic and re-inspiring assurance of the inherent truth and of the ultimate and universal triumph of justice, humanity and freedom."I hail this interchange of sentiments, therefore, as an augury that, whatever else may happen, whatever misfortune may befall your country or my own, the peace and friendship which now exists between the two nations will be, as it shall be my desire to make them, perpetual."
22 The George Griswold Arrives in Mersey from NY, February, 1863
23 The statue of Abraham Lincoln in Manchester, England
24 On the grounds of the Ewa Plantation School just west of Honolulu stands a bronze statueof a young Abraham Lincoln with ax in hand,forearms rippling after splitting logs. Fifteenyears before Hawaii became a state in 1959,school officials unveiled this statue, a symbolof Lincoln’s popularity in Hawaii during theAmerican Civil War, when many Hawaiiansenlisted in the Union Army and Navy despitethe kingdom’s official neutrality.
25 On the grounds of the Ewa Plantation School just west of Honolulu stands a bronze statueof a young Abraham Lincoln with ax in hand,forearms rippling after splitting logs. Fifteenyears before Hawaii became a state in 1959,school officials unveiled this statue, a symbolof Lincoln’s popularity in Hawaii during theAmerican Civil War, when many Hawaiiansenlisted in the Union Army and Navy despitethe kingdom’s official neutrality.
26 HAWAII & LINCOLNStrong antislavery sentiment motivated a substantial number of Hawaiians to serve in African American military units, supporting the Union cause against the seceding slave-holding South.These views, plus Lincoln’s personal relationship with Hawaiian ruler, King Kamehameha IV, strengthened Hawaiians’ affection for the American president.
27 GEORGE GRISWOLD DOCKS AT LIVERPOOL February 1863200 boxes of bacon50 barrels of pork500 bushes of corn500 barrels & boxes of breadRice13,216 barrels of flour…GREETED BY A GREAT CONCOURSE OF PEOPLE
28 In 1865, shortly after Lincoln’s assassination, the Honolulu newspaper Ka Nupepa Kuokoa expressed the sorrow of the Hawaiian people at the death of what it called the “people’s friend.” It argued that “no parallel for this great crime can be found in the world’s history since the Crucifixion.”On Lincoln’s birthday,Ewa’s students place leisaround the statue.
29 STUDENTS: FIND LINCOLN STATUES THROUGHOUT THE U.S. & THE WORLD EXPLAIN WHY
30 WILKES PROCLAIMED Hero in the North although he nearly provokes war with British Trent was leaving HavanaWilkes’ San Jacinto intercepted the Trent, a British Neutral ship with Confederate ambassadors aboardA flip of War of 1812 & impressment issue
32 CHARLES FRANCIS ADAMS U.S. AMBASSADOR TO G.B. James Russell Lowell said of him:None of our generals, nor Grant himself, did us better or more trying service than he in his forlorn outpost of London.Prince Albert steppedin to calm public afterTrent Affair.
33 LOUIS NAPOLEON SEES CIVIL WAR AS AN OPPORTUNITY FOR ADVENTURE IN MEXICO He created a French puppet state, installing the Hapsburg Maximilian as Emperor of Mexico in direct violation of the Monroe Doctrine.Propped up by French troops, Maximilian hung on to his shaky throne for several years, with Napoleon planning to give the Confederacy, from that base, more active support.After Appomattox, Phil Sheridan and 50,000 veterans marched to the Mexican border in blunt warning & Napoleon withdrew his soldiers.Mexicans regained control and Maximilian was executed.
34 RUSSIA 1863 – WARSHIPS IN NY & SAN FRANCISCO HARBORS FOR THE WINTER U.S. TOOK THIS AS A SIGN OF FRIENDSHIP1867 – TSAR ALEXANDER II SELLS ALASKACheck used to purchase Alaska, $7.2 million
35 PRUSSIA FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR – 1871 UNIFICATION OF GERMANY & TOTAL WAR PRUSSIAN OBSERVER FREEMANTLESee Killer AngelsDanish War – 1863Austro-Prussian War 1866FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR – 1871UNIFICATION OF GERMANY& TOTAL WAR