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Using Document Based Questions to Assess Student Learning

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1 Using Document Based Questions to Assess Student Learning
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2 Schedule for the day Session 1: 8:15-9:35 What does a DBQ look like at the different grade levels? Session 2: 9:40-11:00 DBQ Assessment Process Lunch 11:00-12:30 Session 3: 12:30- 1:50 Implementing DBQ Skills Session 4: 1:55-2:55 Putting It All Together 2:55-3:30 Closing

3 Goals for the day Understand how to implement historical writing routinely grades 6-12 Understand the benefits of using historical documents to write Understand how the writing and analysis process works Leave here with strategies and resources you can implement immediately within your curriculum

4 What we need from you… Good Attitude Stay focused Ask questions
Be Professionals Plan to Implement

5 Fears/Complaints/Obstacles
I don’t have enough time to have students write in class I have too much material to cover. I don’t want to grade ALL those essays. My students can’t write an essay- they don’t even know how to write a complete sentence. Students just plagiarize these days. I’m not an English teacher- I don’t know what to grade. Any others? Teachers share first- with partners then share out – complaints fly in individually.

6 Why do we need to Write in History Classes?
Students need to learn how to think. Learning to think requires frequent and ongoing practice in thinking. Thinking is hard work. Thinking is for all students. Thinking is clarified by writing. - DBQ Project

7 Why a Document Based Program?
Promotes Thinking Develops Writing Skills Allows for group work in document analysis and peer editing. Builds confidence for students to enroll in AP courses. Thinking: Students must define key terms in an analytical question, identify sources (primary and secondary), read for general meaning, group documents into analytical categories, support ideas with specific data, then articulate and argument. Writing: for poor writers it provides a framework for learning to write essays. For good writers it allows them to create thoughtful, tightly argued pieces.

8 Session 1: What does the DBQ look like at various levels?
Grade Level What is the student task? How are the students assessed? What does the teacher need to know to prepare the students? 6th World Cul 7th TX His 8th US His World Geo (9th) World His (10th) US History (11th) GOV/ECO (12th) AP standards and expectations presentation. – 20 minutes- handout 8 commandments of writing a history essay. This is an intro into the understanding that thinking is writing and students need to be able to think for themselves- research shows that only 1% of teachers’ questions goes beyond fact and routine. Every student is capable to writing and thinking.

9 Break 5 minute break

10 DBQ assessment Process
Session 2 9:40-11:00 DBQ assessment Process

11 DBQ Assessment Process Rubric Building
What are the common elements that DBQs share at every level? How do these elements factor into grading? What can rubrics look like and how do they assist in the grading process?

12 What are the common elements that DBQs share at every level?
To be successful, students have to do the following: quickly read and understand document content interpret documents to use as evidence to answer a question craft a cohesive and persuasive written argument using document evidence Session 3 will cover how to teach these 3 distinct skills to students

13 Purpose of DBQ Rubrics Measure distinct DBQ skills Understanding
Interpreting Crafting an argument Provide effective feedback to students (goal: future improvement) Must be timely (while the question and process are fresh) Must be specific (grade alone doesn’t facilitate improvement) Facilitate grading Must make the process relatively easy for teachers Must encourage consistency in grading from student to student

14 Types of Rubrics Holistic Scoring Core Scoring Scale Scoring

15 Holistic Scoring Essays are judged in their entirety
The 8-9 Essay Contains a well-developed thesis that addresses all parts of the question Supports the thesis with effective analysis Effectively uses a substantial number of documents Supports thesis with substantial and relevant outside information May contain minor errors Is clearly organized and well written The 5-7 Essay Contains a thesis that addresses part of the question Has limited or implicit analysis Effectively uses some documents Supports the thesis with some relevant outside information May have errors that do not seriously detract from the quality of the essay Shows acceptable organization and writing; language errors do not interfere with the comprehension of the essay Essays are judged in their entirety Scores are assigned based on successful demonstration of skills and understanding Scores divided into ranges based on the above

16 Core Scoring Scores are based on the accumulation
Essay are judged for core elements Scores are based on the accumulation of successful core parts (given points) Scores developed from this accumulation of points

17 Scale Scoring Essays are judged in their entirety
Scores are based on achieving key skills Scores are qualitative and descriptive in nature

18 Holistic Scoring 11th

19 Core Scoring 10th Grade Core Scoring 10th Grade

20 Scale Scoring Any Grade
Have participants score one sample student essay using a rubric of their choosing from the 3 shown.

21 Questions How did using the rubric facilitate grading?
How did using the rubric facilitate giving students feedback? What was difficult about grading still?

22 Tips for Grading Don’t score for grammar
Think of these as rough drafts Grade ideas, analysis, use of evidence, structure of the argument Teach the rubric to students before writing

23 Tips for Grading Standardize or grade a few with a fellow teacher first to establish a standard Read through some of your students to see a spread of responses before you start grading Have students grade according to rubric Peer grade Ratiocination

24 Tips for Grading Full DBQ is summative – grading parts of the process before this step is crucial Examples: Grade thesis one time Grade use of evidence another time Feedback must be timely the more times you grade, the better you’ll get


26 Break- Lunch see you at 12:30

27 Implementing DBQ skills
Session 3 12:30-1:50 Implementing DBQ skills

28 Speaker- describe what you know about the person who wrote the document
Occasion- what was going on in history SOAPS Audience- who is the reader? Who is the person speaking to? Doc analysis Purpose- intent, reason, goal Subject- topic

29 Speaker- describe what you know about the person who wrote the document
Occasion- what was going on in history Audience- who is the reader? Who is the person speaking to? SOAPPS Purpose- intent, reason, goal Point of view- authors background (bias?) Subject- topic Tone Implied attitude toward the subject and the audience

30 OPTIC Overview- what do you think this is?
Parts- pieces of the picture OPTIC Title- what is it and how does it help you understand the picture Interrelationship- connections between the parts and the title Conclusion- why is this picture important historically

31 On the Move Analysis With your group choose a poster
Each person pick a letter that you will be responsible for (SOAPS- written documents, OPTIC-visuals) On your sticky note write your letter and the correct response. When all group members are complete write one conclusion about the document at the bottom of the poster

32 Rotate! At your new document:
Add 2 scaffolding questions that would help a student with analyzing this document Answer the 2 scaffolding questions

33 Cubes Tactile document analysis method Label the cubes SOAPS or OPTIC
Each group completes one letter for the document Presenter shares the document and the letter explanation that was rolled.

34 White Board Warm Ups Source: Las Vegas & Greenland Tourism Boards
1.What do both of these places have in common as to how their physical geography impacts their human geography? analysis

35 Bucketing After reading through all the documents students determine where they will use them in their essay. Bucketing: Another term for “placing in analytical categories” or “arranging in clusters”. Buckets become body paragraphs. Reason 3 Document A,D Reason 1 Document B Reason 2 Documents A,C

36 Shoes Everyone throw one shoe in the center of the room Volunteer #1
Group the shoes anyway you want Explain your grouping strategy Volunteer #2 Group the shoes in a different way

37 Shoes Group the shoes this time according to the following prompt:
“How can these shoes represent globalization?”

38 Understanding DBQ Prompts
Verbs: Identify Describe Explain – How and why

39 a) Identify two animals.

40 b) Describe the two animals.

41 c) Explain how one has an advantage over the other.

42 Suggestions The “primary reason” is one thing – If you laundry list you will not get credit. Do not say “Because the dog is bigger.”—THAT IS DESCRIBING. Explain why the dog being bigger gives him an advantage over the kitty. Explain – be able to answer “and so what?” – good idea is to use the sentence and throw in a “because” and be able to answer that.


44 Thesis Writing Since it is NOT acceptable to simply restate the question we will be using a formula. The Thesis Formula: X. However, A, B, and C. Therefore, Y. ‘X’ represents the strongest point against your argument. ‘A, B, and C’ represent the three strongest points for your argument. ‘Y’ represents the position you will be taking; in other words, your stand on the prompt.

45 Thesis Statement Question or Thesis Main Idea #1 Main Idea #2
Scaffolding for middle school

46 The Good, the Bad, the Ugly
The Question: Analyze the changes that occurred during the 1960s and the goals, strategies, and support of the movement for African American civil rights.

47 UUUGGGGLLLYYY Does not answer the prompt
The Civil Rights movement in the United States gave more American Rights. UUUGGGGLLLYYY Does not answer the prompt

48 Many changes occurred in the 1960s in the goals, strategies, and changes in the movement for civil rights Bad Answers the prompt but is not very specific. Re-states the question.

49 Civil rights goals shifted from achieving legal equality to social and economic rights in the mid-1960s. As the movement broadened nationally, methods shifted from nonviolence to violence. Support for civil rights fractured along racial and generational lines. Good

50 Preparing for the DBQ: 15 Minute Drill
Read the prompt. What is the task? What is the prompt asking you to determine or answer? Create your conceptual framework. Brainstorm SPECIFIC background information. Place as much SPECIFIC information in the space provided below. Analyze the ways in which the Vietnam War heightened social, political, and economic tensions in the United States. Focus your answer on t he period 1964 to 1975

51 Putting it all together
Document sources other than print can: Keep students engaged Expand source material Feel good Analysis, grouping, and listening

52 Caribbean Culture DBQ: The Music of Bob Marley & the Wailers
Analyze each document (song) Discuss keep points of each document with your small group Group the documents into categories Create a thesis to share with the class Be prepared to explain which documents go in which groups

53 Session 4: 2:05-3:00 Putting it All Together
“I'm not a very good writer, but I'm an excellent rewriter.”  James Michener “The wastebasket is a writer's best friend.”  Isaac Singer "I write to find out what I think.“ Stephen King

54 Putting it All Together
S4 Putting it All Together Truths about writing The writing process embodies higher order thinking. Writing is a skill; practice is the only way to improve. Timely, specific constructive feedback leads to improvement.

55 Putting it All Together
Truths about teaching writing It requires planning, preparation, and practice throughout an academic year; it is not just a summative exercise for tests. To elicit higher order responses, questions/prompts must also be higher order and not just definitional. Times for feedback, conferencing, and peer grading/editing should be included; students must see and discuss writing to know how to improve

56 What could this look like in a six weeks period?
Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Debrief DBQ rubric and sample prompt Doc analysis exercise Read and score sample DBQ responses Thesis writing exercise Discuss new DBQ prompt Group doc analysis practice Thesis writing Prewriting& Outlining Conference on thesis writing and outline Draft Peer editing Final draft due Peer scoring Teacher conferencing Teacher conference Each activity leading up to final draft is a formative assignment. Be wary of grades that measure mastery at introductory stages of the process All activities above do not take the entire block period – 30 minutes for most. The first two days and the drafting day are the only times that 60 minutes is used

57 Goals for Session 4 Develop and integrate a DBQ writing program in your grade level. Integrate DBQ process into an existing unit Scaffold individual skills (Session 3) into lessons Include opportunities to draft and re-draft Include opportunities for teacher and student feedback At your campus - Create a DBQ Develop a higher level prompt according to grade level TEKS Share resources (print and internet) to build a document set Create a rubric that measures the essential DBQ skills appropriate to your grade level

58 Thank you for coming Please complete online survey through Eduphoria to earn credit for this course.

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