4 Overview Foot analysis Why you should run Shoes and Gear Running Form What to wear (i.e. shoes and clothes)Where to run – different surfacesGetting started/Training PlansSafety/InjuriesGait Analysis
5 Why Run? No special equipment needed Easy to do Healthy lifestyle – must add in diet modificationRunning is “something you can do by yourself, and under your own power. You can go in any direction, fast or slow as you want, fighting the wind if you feel like it, seeking out new sights just on the strength of your feet and the courage of your lungs.” --Jesse Owens(Don’t think we need… although I like the quote)
6 Proper Running Form Stand upright and tall Form should feel relaxed and naturalHead looking straight forwardArms in close to sides of bodyAvoid extraneous arm movementsMaintain a straight line from your nose through your chest, belly button and inseamAvoid head bob
7 Common Foot Types Flat feet Neutral feet High arch feet What type of foot do you have?Do the wet foot test:Get your foot wet; stand on a surface that will leave a visible printGait/foot analysis(Before class, I give participants the option of doing the wet foot test so they know what type of foot they have before we get started. Don’t waste the middle of class time doing this if you are on a tight schedule!)
8 Types of Running Shoes Cushioning Stability Motion Control Moderate – high archMaximum cushionLittle arch supportStabilityNormal ArchMild to moderate pronationSome support & cushioningMotion ControlFlat FeetOverpronationMost support/stabilityWorn shoe tilt Foot ShapeCushioning Shoes: Recommended for people with high arches or light weight runners. These have lots of cushion, but little to no stability. Remember high arches are pretty inflexible, so they do not need added support. Stay away from a cushion shoe if you have flat feet.Stability Shoes: Recommended for people with normal arches or mild flat feet. This is the middle of the road shoe with some support and some cushion. Some stability is recommended for heavier runners due to the durability of the shoe.Motion Control: Recommended for people with severely flat feet. This shoe has lots of added support and stability to help prevent that overpronation. If you have high arches, stay away from this shoe!(Ask your AAFES if they are willing to donate a pair of each type of shoe for you to use as demos. I pass around a stability, cushion, and motion control shoe so participants can do a “Twist & Fold Test” to check the flexibility and stability of the shoe)Also keep in mind: Durability vs lightweightExtra durability- better for males >180lbs or females >150lbsLightweight- better for lightweight runners or for racing
9 Some pronation is a good thing! Arch collapses inward to act as a shock absorberCommon foot types:Flat feetNormal feetHigh arch feetArches act as a shock absorber for your foot, and pronation is that natural inward roll of the foot to help reduce the impact. High arches are relatively inflexible and have very little pronation. Flat feet are overly flexible causing over pronation.
11 The Perfect Running Shoe Your running shoes should:Feel good on your feetNot cause blistersNot blacken your toenailsNot make your knees acheBased on your foot typeYou should not have to break in running shoes so they should feel great on your feet the first time you run in them. If your shoes are causing you blisters or blackening your toe nails, you may be wearing a size too small. If your shoes do not feel good, visit your local running specialty store to help find a shoe that can give you the right fit and feel good.
13 When to Replace My Shoes After miles of running useWhen it is 80% wornOnly run in your running shoes!After miles, the midsole of your shoe has started to break down. Since the mid-sole provides the support and cushioning in the shoe, replacing your shoes regularly is important to prevent injury. If you wear your running shoes to play sports, walk your dog, or mow your lawn… this mileage counts too! Save your running shoes for running.
14 Barefoot Running Running without any shoes on the feet Some argue that barefoot running is healthier for your feet, but research is not conclusive or widely accepted by the medical communitySuitably padded running shoes are recommended, with particular consideration of foot typeIn addition, there is no conclusive evidence about “toe” shoes and “shape-ups”
15 Running Apparel Wear reflective clothing to ensure vehicles see you When sunny, wear sunglasses that block UV raysWhen warm, wear clothing with moisture wicking to keep skin dry (ex. “Drifit”, “Coolmax”, “Drylyte”)When cold, layer clothing, wear clothing with high insulating properties that aren’t diminished by getting wet, and wear a cap and gloves(This is a good slide, but if we are concerned about length – this could be removed)
16 Types of Running Surfaces ConcreteAsphaltCinder trailsGrassChoice of running surface is important when it comes to injury prevention. Hard surfaces can lead to overuse injuries like shin splints while extremely soft surfaces can lead to acute injuries. (next slide)
17 Getting StartedNow that I know why I should run, the basic form and the equipment I need, how do I get started? Consider:PaceProgressionSafetyTraining principles
20 ProgressionChange only one variable at a time to help avoid injury and burnout. For example:Increase distance orIncrease intensity orIncrease paceThe 10% Rule - never add more than 10% to existing distance each weekA runner runs against himself, against the best that’s in him.” --Bill PearsonsMany overuse injuries come from training too hard, too fast. Often times in HAWCs we see individuals training back up following a fitness test failure or a profile expiration, and wind up with an overuse injury. Increasing your volume by no more than 10% each week will help you safely progress your fitness and remain injury free.
21 Training Principles Individual differences 2. Specificity One size does NOT fit all2. SpecificityNeed to RUN to improve your RUN time3. Use/Disuse“Use it or lose it”Individual differences – We are all different people with different levels of fitness. So a canned program wouldn’t benefit everyone. Using what you learn in this class can help you develop your own training program.2) Specificity of Training - If you are taking college classes, you wouldn’t study out of a history book for a math exam, right? This same principle applies to fitness. You have to train in the activity that you are being tested on. So runners have to run, cyclists have to bike, and walkers need to bike. Cross training activities are important for injury prevention, preventing burnout, and weight loss but will not help you to be a better running3) Use or Disuse – We lose our fitness 2-4 times as quickly as we gain it. So training hard for the next 6-8 weeks to increase your fitness, and then take couple weeks off will actually put you back at square 1. What this means is you need to maintain year round fitness. When you are on leave, TDY, deployments, etc. pack your running shoes.
22 Training Principles 4. Overload 5. Progression 6. Adaptation Must increase stresses on body to improve5. ProgressionGradually increase loads to decrease risk of injury6. AdaptationMust train your body to be able to adjust to new demandsThese last three go hand in hand. Your body adapts pretty quickly to training, so if you want to make continuous improvement in your fitness you have to increase the load or volume. As your body adapts, overload your system by increasing your speed or distance. While you are making these increases in your speed or distance, you want to progress slowly with no more than 10% increase in volume per week to prevent injury.
23 Common Running Mistakes Starting too fastLittle or no warm-up and/or cool-downEating too much beforehandDehydrationStarting too fast – Many people get to the starting line and run the first quarter mile too quickly and have the slow down to recover during the race. Strive to maintain your speed through the run or even slowly increasing speed during a race. Competitive runners call this progression in speed during a race “negative splits”.Warm-up/Cool-down – Have you ever gotten a “second wind” about quarter mile or so into a race? Your body may have just used part of your test as a warm-up. Spending 5-10 minutes warming up prior to a race or workout helps get your body ready to go. On the reverse, a cool-down helps return your body back to resting which helps you recover quicker for the next day’s workout.Eating too Much –If you eat too much, too soon before a race your body is sending more of your blood to help digest the food instead of to your working muscles. Also, GI distress during the race can be pretty uncomfortable. Eat something light at least an hour before to give you time for digestion.Dehydration – As little as 2-4% dehydration can decrease your performance as much as 30%. Stay hydrated every day, and monitor your urine output to ensure you are well hydrated for optimal performance.
24 Components of Warm-Up: 5-10 minutes walk/jog OPTIONAL Stretch To increase core muscle temperatureTo improve cooling of bodyTo dilate blood vessels which decreases stress on the heartTo help muscles contract and relax more quickly which allows for faster and stronger movementsHave you ever gotten a “second wind” about half way into your fitness test? Your body likely has used part of your test on a warm-up. Before any workout or race, spend 5-10 minutes on a warm-up. This should be a lower intensity version of the exercise that is to come. So if you are running, your warm-up should be a walk or jog. If you are on biking, you should spin at a low intensity. You may have noticed most exercise machines in the fitness center have a built in warm-up.When your body is warmed-up, your body starts to sweat so you are better able to maintain a health body temperature. Dilation of the blood vessels allows more blood pump through your body so your heart doesn’t have to work so hard. Not to mention that warmed-up muscles can contract and relax more forcefully which means you can run faster.Never stretch cold muscles. After the warm-up, you can spend a few minutes stretching. This is optional as the research hasn’t determined if a stretch with the warm-up is beneficial.Components of Warm-Up: 5-10 minutes walk/jog OPTIONAL Stretch
25 Components of Cool-Down: Static Stretch: Hold 20-30 seconds and repeat To help displace lactic acid build-upTo prevent blood pooling which increases swellingTo allow for heart rate recoveryHave you ever gotten lightheaded at the end of a really hard workout? When we exercise, our blood is being diverted mostly to the muscles in our extremities. So when we stop exercising without a cool-down, the blood actually pools in your extremities. Spending 5-10 minutes walking or jogging helps to bring your cardiovascular system back to normal. A cool-down helps to make sure your body is recovered for the next day’s workout.Stretching really should be done after your cool-down because this is the most warmed-up your muscles can be which allows you to get a better stretch. Spend a few minutes stretching each major muscle group to increase your flexibility.Components of Cool-Down:5-10 minutes walk/jogStatic Stretch: Hold seconds and repeat
26 Endurance vs Speed Focus on endurance first Be able to walk/jog 3 milesThen progress to jog/run 3 milesThen work on increasing speedEndurance work is based on how long or far you can go while speed is how quickly you can do it. However, you have to have a good base level of fitness to work from. Slowly build your base level of fitness so you can run 2-3 miles without stopping before adding speed work into your training plans.
27 Training Types Distance - long with a slow pace Interval - high intensity for 3-5 minutes with equal rest periods ( m)Speedwork is essential to running faster; can be done several ways (hills, against wind, controlled on track)Tempo -continuous run with an easy beginning, a buildup in the middle to race pace, then ease back to finishDistance workouts should help you build your big, base level endurance. Before you add any speed work, you should be able to at least run the 1.5 mi without stopping.Speed work is really the key to being a faster runner. If you run every workout at 6.0 mph, you won’t run your fitness test much faster than that. Speed work will help you increase your leg turnover and increase your lactate threshold. The three main types of speed work are intervals, fartleks, and tempo runs.Intervals – start with 400 m (0.25 mi) intervals. Set your pace by dividing your 1.5 mi time by 6, and subtracting 5-10 sec (e.g. 1.5 mi – 12:00; 1:50-1:55 interval pace). Run one lap hard, followed by one lap recovery and repeat 2-4 times. As your speed and endurance improves, increased the number or intervals and/or increase the distance (600m or 800m). This is different than a sprint! Since sprints are an anaerobic activity, they will not make much impact on your overall aerobic fitness test. Sprints actually have a high risk of injury as asll!Fartlek means “speed play” in Swedish. Spend min alternating between different speeds. Maybe change pace every time you pass a tree or stop sign. You can change your pace any time you want during this workout.Tempo runs are a longer, continuous speed workout. After a nice long working, increase your pace to a little slower than race pace for minutes, and finish with a nice long cool down.Your weekly runs should consist of at least one day of speed work and one day of distance/endurance work.
28 Sample Speed Workouts INTERVALS TEMPO 5-10 min warm-up 400 m hard400 m recoveryRepeat 2-6 times5-10 min cool-down4 x 400 = 2 miles of workTEMPO5-10 min warm-upWorkoutDistance (1.5 mi)Time (10 min)5-10 min cool-downWith an interval, you will run at a high intensity for a few minutes followed by an equal rest time. Running intervals on a 400m track (or treadmill in inclement weather) is ideal. In this example, 400m should be 1 lap around the track at race pace or faster followed by 400 m (1 lap) recovery. That counts as 1 repetition. Repeat as necessary based on your level of fitness. To progress your intervals from one week to the next, you can increase the number of repetitions or increasing the speed of each lap.With a tempo run, you can run your set distance or time at race pace or slightly faster. For example, after the warm-up, run for min hard followed by a cool down. You can progress this by increasing the length of time of the tempo run.
32 What's the Burn? A Calorie Calculator Calories BurnedWhat's the Burn? A Calorie CalculatorYou can use the formulas below to determine your calorie-burn while running and walking. The "Net Calorie Burn" measures calories burned, minus basal metabolism. Scientists consider this the best way to evaluate the actual calorie-burn of any exercise. The walking formulas apply to speeds of 3 to 4 mph. At 5 mph and faster, walking burns more calories than running.Your Total Calorie Burn/MileYour Net Calorie Burn/MileRunning.75 x your weight (in lbs.).63 x your weightWalking.53 x your weight.30 x your weightAdapted from "Energy Expenditure of Walking and Running," Medicine & Science in Sport & Exercise, Cameron et al, Dec
33 Safety TipsRun against traffic so you can observe approaching vehiclesDon’t wear headsets if running near trafficBe aware of your surroundings and stay alertWear reflective material if running before dawn or after darkRun with a partnerHeadsets – Many road races actually ban the use of headsets due to the safety issues. Make sure to check your base policy about headphone use.
34 Hydration Before: drink 2 cups of water 15-20 min prior to running During: drink 1 cup per every 15 min of runningAfter: drink 16oz of fluid per pound of body weight>60 Min look to either sport drink or sports gelsDepends on personal tolerance to sugarStick to water unless you are working out for longer than an hour. For longer workouts, a sports drink can help you replace eletrolytes lost during exercise.
35 Injury Prevention Most injuries are musculoskeletal Most are self-inflictedRunning too far, too fast, too soon or too oftenRICE to aid in the recovery processRestIceCompressionElevation
36 Tips for Injury Prevention Wear good running shoesRun on appropriate running surfaceInclude cross training (different kinds of physical activities, not just running)Include active rest periodsProperly warm-up/cool-down with stretching afterFollow training principles (avoid overprogression)
38 Training for the 1.5 Mile Run 1) First focus on enduranceDistance (Long): easy paceHills (for 5k runners)2) Then focus on speedIntervals: m hard, followed by recoveryTempo Runs: “speed endurance”3) Don’t forget to practice the testIn summary, slowly increase build your endurance so you can run 2-3 miles or minutes continuously. Then add in speed work one day per week. Don’t forget to practice test every few weeks as a bench mark to show your improvement.
39 Getting Started Identify your needs Set goals Determine potential barriersand how to overcome themDevelop your training planKeep a mileage logReward yourself“If you want to become the best runner you can be, start now. Don’t spend the rest of your life wondering if you can do it.” –Priscilla Welch
40 Other Resources for Runners Mileage logsSample running programsSports nutrition resources
41 Take Home Messages Wear proper shoes Build endurance first, then train for speedPractice injury prevention techniques and remember the 10% PrincipleFollow training principlesPractice the 1.5 mile runSet goals and keep a training log
42 What’s YOUR running plan? At this point, I give participants the option to develop their own 8-wk training plan and the instructor (HFT/HFS/EP) reviews the plan and provides feedback.