13 VIRGINIA PLAN VS. NEW JERSEY PLAN Both advocated three branches of governmentSmall states favored the New Jersey Plan because it proposed that all states have equal representation in the legislatureThe New Jersey Plan could have proposed “one vote per state.”
14 COMPROMISE Agreement in which each side give up some demands The Great Compromise: Constitutional Convention agreed to create a two-house legislature.
15 GREAT COMPROMISESeats in the House of Representatives would be awarded according to populationEvery state would have two seats in the Senate
16 GREAT COMPROMISE3/5ths of the slaves in a state were included to determine state representationResolved the conflict between Virginia Plan and New Jersey Plan
17 CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION 9 out of 13 states had to ratify the Constitution before it could become law
18 Ratification & Bill of Rights In key states, the tide slowly turned in favor of ratification of the Constitution.The Bill of Rights became part of the Constitution through the amendment process.
19 Bill of RightsList of freedoms that the government promises to protect.
20 AMEND Make changes to a document Bill of Rights: Ten amendments to the Constitution
21 ROMAN REPUBLICConvention delegates wanted to create a republic, a government in which citizens rule through elected representatives.
22 ROMAN REPUBLICConvention delegates patterned this idea after the Roman RepublicRomans valued public service
23 MAGNA CARTA 1215 English document helped shape new American government Basic idea that people have certain guaranteed rights
24 JOHN LOCKEEnlightenment writer who said that the relationship between government and the people it governs is a social contract.
25 SEPARATION OF POWERSDivision of the responsibilities of government branches to keep any person or group from gaining too much power.
26 BARON DE MONTESQUIEUEnlightenment writer who stressed that government powers should be clearly defined and divided
27 SEPARATION OF POWERSMontesquieu suggested 3 separate branches of power be created: legislative, executive, and judicial
28 FEDERALISTSArgued that a strong national government could be effective and protect states’ rights
29 ANTIFEDERALISTSArgued that the Constitution must spell out ways to protect people’s basic rights
30 Admitting New States1787: Northwest Ordinance set up government for Northwest Territory, guaranteed basic right to settlers, and outlawed slavery there.
31 NORTHWEST ORDINANCEA territory had to have a population of 60,000 free settlersA territory could ask Congress to admit it as a new state