1 Seclusion, Isolation & Restraint Policy Training LSR7 Board Policy JGGASlides will automatically advance after 1 minute, or you may click a slide to advance manually.
2 Purpose of the Policy1. Promote safety and prevent harm to students, school personnel and visitors in the school district.2. Foster a climate of dignity and respect in the use of discipline and behavior management techniques.3. Provide school personnel with clear guidelines about the use of seclusion, isolation and restraint in response to emergency situations.4. Provide parents/guardians information about state guidelines and district policies related to the use of discipline, behavior management, behavior interventions and responses to emergency situations.5. Promote the use of non-aversive behavioral interventions, including positive behavioral support techniques.
3 Facts about District Policy The state of Missouri required each district to adopt a policy regarding the training and use of seclusion, isolation and restraint by July, 2011.Seclusion, isolation, and restraint have garnered national attention in recent years. A number of children have been fatally injured while in restraint. In most cases, this was due to compression of the chest area which caused asphyxiation.This policy applies to ALL district personnel.
4 Definition and Use of SECLUSION Definition: The confinement of a student alone in an enclosed space from which the student is physically prevented from leaving by locking hardware.Use of Seclusion:Seclusion is not used in our district EXCEPT in an emergency situation while awaiting law enforcement officers as provided for in state law.If seclusion is used, a plan must be in place to prevent the need for future use of seclusion.Instances of seclusion would be very rare in our district as we have limited spaces that are equipped with locking hardware.
5 Definition and Use of ISOLATION Definition: The confinement of a student ALONE in an ENCLOSED space without locking hardware. Isolation does not include supervised in-school suspension or detention as used in disciplinary consequences in accordance with the district’s student discipline code.Use of Isolation:Isolation shall only be used:In an emergency situation (e.g., student unexpectedly runs toward street)ORWhen less restrictive measures have not effectively de-escalated the situation and the school has a plan for how to respond in such situations (e.g., student is struggling behaviorally and data is being taken in order for formal plan to be developed or while awaiting alternative placement)With parental approval as specified in a student’s IEP, Section 504 plan, or other agreed upon plan to address behavior
6 Use of ISOLATION (continued) The total time in Isolation is to be reasonably calculated based on the age of the student and the circumstances and is not to exceed 40 minutes without a reassessment of the situation and consultation with parents/guardians or administrative staff, unless otherwise specified in an IEP, Section 504 plan, or other parentally agreed upon plan.If isolation is used, the student must be monitored by district personnel who are in close proximity and able to see and hear the student at all times. Monitoring shall be face to face or through the use of monitoring technology equipment.As part of a previous due process decision, the Autism/Behavior Specialist who covers your building shall be notified (via or phone) after 20 minutes of Isolation.
7 Things to consider when using ISOLATION If a student requires a behavioral intervention, in most circumstances it would be best practice to supervise the student in the same room. If a person is there to supervise, this would NOT be considered isolation.If you choose to use isolation, the need for the use of this intervention must be justified and documented.The use of isolation would likely be an extremely rare occurrence.If isolation is used, a plan must be in place to prevent the need for future use of isolation.
8 Definition of PHYSICAL RESTRAINT Definition: The use of person-to-person physical contact to restrict the free movement of all or a portion of a student’s body. It does not include briefly holding a student without undue force for instructional or other purposes, briefly holding a student to calm the student, taking a student’s hand to transport him or her for safety purposes, physical escort, or intervening in a fight, or carrying a small child when developmentally appropriate to do so.Definition of Physical Escort: The temporary touching or holding of the hand, wrist, arm, shoulder, or back for the purposes of inducing a student who is acting out or eloping to walk to a safe location.
9 Use of PHYSICAL RESTRAINT Physical Restraint shall only be used:In an emergency situationORWhen less restrictive measures have not effectively de-escalated the situation and the school has a plan for how to respond in such situationsWith parental approval as specified in a student’s IEP, Section 504 plan, or other agreed upon plan to address behavior
10 Use of PHYSICAL RESTRAINT (con't) Physical Restraint will:Only be used as long as necessary to resolve the actual risk of danger or harm that warranted the use of physical restraint.Be no greater than the degree of force necessary to protect the student or other persons from imminent bodily injury or to protect property.Not place pressure or weight on the chest, lungs, sternum, diaphragm, back, neck, or throat that restricts breathing.Only be done by district persons trained in the proper use of physical restraint.
11 Use of PHYSICAL RESTRAINT (con't) District personnel who use physical restraint shall only use restraint methods in which they have received district-approved training.Further, district personnel who use physical restraint may only do so in the presence of at least one additional adult who is in the line of sight unless no other adult is immediately available due to an unforeseeable emergency situation.
12 PHYSICAL RESTRAINT (con't) Things to consider in using PHYSICAL RESTRAINT:Physical restraint should never be used as a form of punishment or for the convenience of district personnel.If a restraint is used, a plan must be in place to prevent the need for future use of restraint.Non-compliance, disrespect, and defiance ARE NOT reasons to use restraint.
13 Definition and Use of MECHANICAL RESTRAINT Definition: A device or physical object that the student cannot easily remove that restricts a student’s freedom of movement or normal access to a portion of his or her body. The term does not include assistive technology.Use of Mechanical Restraint:Shall only be used as specified in a student’s IEP or Section 504 plan with two exceptions:Vehicle safety restraints shall be used according to state and federal regulations.Mechanical restraints employed by law enforcement officers in school settings should be used in accordance with appropriate professional standards and applicable policies.
14 Definition of CHEMICAL RESTRAINT Definition: Administration of a drug or medication to manage a student’s behavior that is not a standard treatment and dosage for the student’s medical condition.Chemical Restraints shall never be used by district personnel.
15 Emergency Situation Follow-ups Meeting no later than 2 days following incidentShall include all staff involvedMUST include discussion of:Events that led to emergencyWhy de-escalation was not effectiveTraumatic reactions by any partyWhat could have been done differentlyEvaluation of the process
16 Parent/Guardian Notification of Emergency Situation Verbally or electronicallyNo later than end of the day of the incident unless unreasonable or impossible and then by noon of the next dayWritten reportWithin 5 daysDate, time, location, duration, descriptionEvents leading to incidentNature and extent of student injuryDistrict contact personPrevention plan
17 Required District Records Required district reports should include the following information:WhenReasonDurationDistrict personnel involvedInjuries if anyName and age of studentDisciplinary actions
18 “The Form”Combines required notice to parents/guardians and district recordsComplete EVERY time seclusion, isolation or restraint is usedFound on the all schools drive in the Crisis Prevention folderIf seclusion is used (not included on form to prevent isolation being coded as seclusion) write on the top of the formto Kaye Otten, District Crisis Prevention Trainer and Behavior Specialist
19 Positive Behavior Support “The Superintendent or designee is responsible for implementing the DISTRICTWIDE use of appropriate positive behavior supports designed to support or alter behavior in ALL students."Just as safety laws prevent and reduce accidents and preventative medicine prevent and reduces illness, positive behavior support prevents and reduces behavioral problems
20 PREVENTION TECHNIQUES 8/8/2011PREVENTION TECHNIQUESDevelop positive rapport with students. Relationship is a key factor in working with a child to prevent behavioral acting out.Give choices, offer the student a “weighted choice” (pair the positive choice with a positive consequence and the negative choice with the negative consequence).Allow for processing time – use silence (at least seconds for a child to make a decision).Be aware of your own body language, voice tone, volume, and rate of speech. Also be aware of your surroundings and those around you when redirecting/correcting student behavior!Don’t take it personally!Remember the power of reinforcement!Prevention techniques include:1. Developing positive rapport with students. Building strong, trusting relationships with students is a key factor in prevention of behavioral issues. Students are more willing to be vulnerable and allow assistance from someone they trust.2. Give choices, offer the student a “weighted choice” – this is pairing a positive choice with a positive consequence and the negative choice with a negative consequence. For example: “Susan, if finish your assignment on time, you will get to go to recess with the rest of the class. If you choose not to finish your assignment, you will stay in from recess to complete it.” or “Richard, if you stop yelling, calm down and talk to me in a quiet voice, I will be able to help you. If you continue yelling you will take a time out.”3. Allow your students to have the processing time or “think time” they need. Allow at least seconds for a student to make the decision to comply. You might even look at your watch an say “I will give you 30 seconds to think about it and make a decision”.4. Be aware of your own body language, voice, tone, volume, and rate of speech. As staff members, sometimes we are not aware of our contributions to an escalating situation when our volume is loud or our body language is confrontational.You can check yourself by making sure you are at the same level (not standing over a student who is much smaller), making sure your stance is open and relaxed. Are your arms crossed? Even if you are upset, please be sure to use a calm, even tone as you communicate with the student.5. Above all, don’t take a student’s actions personally. In all likelihood it’s not about you. There are many factors that affect student behavior both internally and externally that have nothing to do with you.In a moment, I will ask you to stop the presentation and discuss how you use these or other prevention techniques.Which techniques have you already mastered and use consistently? Which techniques could you improve upon?***
21 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES 8/8/2011ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUESRemove the student’s audience whenever possibleSurvey your environment to create awareness and to address any possible safety issuesA student who “acts out” may require a quiet space to recover. Is there a quiet space nearby your classroom? Is the space compatible with appropriate supervision?Environmental Management Techniques include:1. Remove the student’s audience whether it be peers, staff, or others. Some students are motivated to act out and/or continue acting out when they have an audience, while other students are embarrassed.2. Be aware of your physical environment and whether or not there may be any safety risks for students. For example-Do you have heavy items stored on a bookshelf that could be pushed over?Are there computer cords across a traffic area?Do you have a nearby door that opens to a busy street?3. A student who “acts out” may require a quiet space to recover. Is there a quiet space near your classroom? Is the space compatible with appropriate supervision?In a moment, I will ask you to stop the presentation and discuss how you use these or other environmental management techniques.Which techniques have you already mastered and use consistently? Which techniques could you improve upon?***
22 DE-ESCALATION TECHNIQUES 8/8/2011DE-ESCALATION TECHNIQUESIf a student is:Experiencing anxiety – be supportiveShowing defiance/refusal – be calmly directive, set clear, reasonable, enforceable limitsRemember – anxiety does not equal defiance and refusal!Acting out physically and is dangerous – call for a CPI trained staff member and/or the SROShowing signs of beginning to relax/calm down – re-establish your positive relationship, provide support, follow through with consequences BUT wait until the student is completely calm!De-escalation techniques include:1. Frequently, students who are upset are experiencing anxiety. Sometimes a student’s anxiety can look like anger or frustration. The best way to respond to a student’s anxiety is to be supportive and offer to be of assistance.2. If a student is showing defiance and/or refusal, be calm and use clear directives and practice good limit setting techniques. Do not set limits you cannot enforce. Set limits that are clear, reasonable, and that can be enforced.3. If a student becomes a danger to himself or others and requires physical restraint, call for assistance from staff who are trained in physical restraint and/or your school police officer if the situation warrants.4. When the student begins to relax and calm down, re-establish your positive relationship, provide support, and follow through with consequences.In a moment, I will ask you to stop the presentation and discuss how you use these or other de-escalation techniques.Which techniques have you already mastered and use consistently? Which techniques could you improve upon?***
23 8/8/2011REMEMBER:Your goal with any intervention is to assist the student in reaching independence with the particular skill being taught.Behavioral interventions are not used to punish, but to teach.Seclusion, isolation, and restraint are emergency safety measures.Most incidents of restraint and isolation can be avoided with the use of other de-escalation methods.Remember:Your goal with any intervention is to assist the student in reaching independence. In other words, teach them how to do what they need to do on their own.Behavioral interventions are never used to punish. The intent is to re-teach more appropriate behaviors to the student. It may take many repetitions for the child to re-learn a new way to behave in a certain circumstance. For example, if a child becomes aggressive after being called names, it may take multiple repetitions and daily practice to learn the new skills of reacting differently.Seclusion, isolation, and restraint are emergency safety measures, not planned consequencesMost restraints can be avoided with the use of other de-escalation methods.***