2 Dialling & Man Machine Interface (MMI) Addresses and Identities AgendaDefinition of termsDialling & Man Machine Interface (MMI)Addresses and IdentitiesNumbering and AddressingCall Scenarios
3 Definition of terms (as used in this presentation) DIALLING - Identity exchange mechanismbetween User and TerminalNUMBERING - decimal representation ofair-interface addresses as seen by the useri.e. user visible numberingA Dialling is ID exchange between the user and his/ her terminal. It is the process where user inputs (or selects) the number of the calling party. There are three basic types of dialling methods i.e.full dialling, orvarious types of short dialling of users in own network, orother methods supported by an application (local or remote), e.g. scrolling and clicking a number from an address book, single key dialling, etc.B Numbering - decimal representation of users' addresses. Numbers are decimal digits visible to and dialled by the user in order to set up a call with the called party.C Addressing - ID exchange mechanism over air-interface, provides the routing information to the transit network about destination of the calling party.ADDRESSING - Identity exchangemechanism over air- interface
4 ID exchange between user and terminal TETRA Dialling & MMIID exchange between user and terminalLeading Digit dialling - ETR 300-5Display scrollingNumber presentation (CLI & TPI)with mnemonicsSoft keysSpecial numbers e.g. 999/ 112ETR recommends a method for leading digit diallingETR 294 provides guidelines for the MMIMode keysFull diallingMan-Machine Interface MMI - ETR 294
5 TETRA Addressing MOBILE NETWORK ID SHORT SUBSCRIBER ID 24 BINARY BITSSHORT SUBSCRIBERIDENTITY(SSI)MOBILECOUNTRYCODE(MCC)NETWORK(MNC)TSI - TETRA Subscriber Address/ Identity comprises of:Mobile Network Identity MNI (24 binary bits) comprising of:MCC Mobile Country Code10 binary bits (ADDRESSING)maximal/ recommended decimal value / 999MNC Mobile Network Code - 14 binary bitsmaximal/ recommended decimal value 16,384 / 9,999Short Subscriber Identity SSI (24 binary bits)max./ recommended decimal value 16,777,215 / 9,999,99924 BINARY BITS7/8 DECIMAL DIGITS10 BITS3/4 DIGITS14 BITS4/5 DIGITS
6 Family of TETRA Addresses (ITSI) INDIVIDUAL TETRA SUBSCRIBER IDENTITY(GTSIs) GROUP TETRA SUBSCRIBER IDENTITIES(ATSI) ALIAS TETRA SUBSCRIBER IDENTITYTETRA Terminal or Subscriber can have several Identities - a family of TSIsIndividual TETRA Subscriber Identity ITSIAlias TETRA Subscriber Identity ATSIGroup TETRA Subscriber Identities GTSIsOne or more TSI visiting Families can coexist (be bound with) the home TSI FamilyHOME NETWORK(V)ATSI VISITING ALIAS TETRA SUBSCRIBER IDENTITY(V)GTSIs VISITING GROUP TETRA SUBSCRIBER IDENTITIESVISITING NETWORK
7 X.121 E.212 TETRA Addressing Plan ITU Recommendation X.121 Numbering Plan for Data NetworksE.212ITU Recommendation E.212Numbering Plan for Public Land Mobile Terminals, e.g. GSMThe structure and numbering of TETRA address ITSI is very similar to E.212 address for GSM which is called an IMSI,in that both have 3 fields, a Country Code field, a mobile network field and a subscriber element.The subscriber element field in E.212 is referred to as an MSIN, whilst in TETRA it is referred to as a SSI. Though similar in structure the length of the individual fields in each structure is different. A further difference is that TETRA standards allow the ITSI to be dialled within a TETRA environment. This is not recommended for the IMSI in ITU Recommendation E.212.
10 How many numbers for a TETRA Terminal? One Family of Home Network TSIsOne Individual TETRA Number ITSIOne Alias of individual Number ATSIOne or more TETRA Group Numbers GTSIsOne or more Families of Visiting Network TSIsUnassigned SSI (USSI)One Visiting Alias (V)ATSIOne or more Visiting Group Numbers (V)GTSIsOne telephone number E.164.
11 Communication within home TETRA Network Basic TETRA NumberCommunication within home TETRA NetworkNo need for algorithm selectionHome dialling algorithm appliesdecimal value range from 0 to 16,777,215 (224)User may dial between 1 and 8 digits7 digit with max value recommendedDecimal digits are converted to binary SSIIncorrect numbers are rejected.
12 Enhanced TETRA Numbering Communication beyond home TETRA Network e.g. another TETRA, PABX, PSTN, ISDNNeed for algorithm selectionSelection of Dialling PlanDirect number entry via keypad, Mode selection buttons, Soft key menu selection, Leading Digit DiallingDTMF can be used to access services outside TETRA networks.
13 Leading Digit Dialling Leading Digit Dialling is the only dialling algorithm selection defined in ETR 300-5Recommended way to achieve commonality between manufacturers’ implementationsPredefined value for E.164 gateway access is 16,777,184Predefined value for ISDN gateway access is 16,777,18514 more values reserved for future use.
14 Call ScenariosCall originating and terminating on same Network,Call originating and terminating on different NetworksCalls between TETRA and PABXCalls between TETRA and E.164 (PSTN, GSM, TETRA!)
15 Scenario 1 - Home Network 9 2MNCMCCSSITETRACommunication within one TETRA NetworkNo need for algorithm selectionHome dialling algorithm applies, viz.decimal value range from 0 to 16,777,215 (224 binary)User may dial between 1 and 8 digits7 digit with max value recommendedDecimal digits are converted to binary SSIIncorrect numbers are rejected1MNCMCCSSI
16 Scenario 2 - Foreign TETRA Net TETRA (UK)ISIMCCMNCSSITo address a user in another TETRA Network in the same country user needs to dial network code MNC and subscriber number SSI.To address a user in a foreign TETRA Network user needs to dial country code MCC, network code MNC and subscriber number SSI.ISITETRA (UK)ISIMCCMNCSSITETRA (France)
17 Scenario 3 - PABX TETRA (A) TETRA (B ) ISI PABX GW MNI SSI PABX SubscriberNumber (24 digits)TETRA (A)TETRA (B )ISIPABXGWPABX (A)PABXGWPABX (B)To address a PABX subscriber of a PABX in the home TETRA Network the user needs to dial the subscriber number and address it to the PABX gateway.To address a PABX subscriber of a PABX in another TETRA Network the user needs to dial the subscriber number and address it to the PABX in the other TETRA network additionally using the network code MNC and eventually the country code MCC.For dialling a PABX extension user may dial up to max of 24 decimal digits, depending on the rules, though typically it would only be 3 or 4.In reverse direction the PABX user dials TETRA user number which consists of PABX gateway address followed by the TETRA user SSI.Erroneous numbers are rejected, either by local terminal application or by the Network, depending whether they are incomplete or incorrect .
18 Scenario 4 - E.164 (PSTN, GSM) TETRA (UK) TETRA (Germany) ISIE.164 GWMNISSIExternal SubscriberNumber (24 digits)E.164GWE.164GWDepending on subscription, the user has a choice of dialling E.164 number using the E.164 Gateway which may be located in terminal’s home network or outside it. If inside the home network, i.e.. the MNI is same, then only the SSI needs to be sent to address the E.164 gateway. In case where terminals are sourced from several manufacturers the Leading Digit Dialling with predefined E.164 value for gateway access would ensure common approach.If the E.164 Gateway through which the call wants to be made is outside home TETRA network, then the MNI identifying the “foreign” TETRA network as well as the SSI addressing the E.164 gateway needs to be sent.In case of Two-stage dialling, TETRA user dials the E.164 gateway in the same way as above. In response to a dialling tone, or dial-now message, user dials extension number which is encoded at the E.164 gateway into DTMF tones and forwarded. In reverse direction, an E.164 subscriber dials the gateway as another subscriber. In response to a dialling tone, or dial-now message, user dials an extension number which is encoded at the E.164 gateway into a SSI and forwarded to one TETRA user (ITSI), or more TETRA users (GTSI) at the same time in case the E.164 user wants to be involved in a group call.In reverse direction the E.164 user dials TETRA E164 number which at the gateway is converted into SSI and, if appropriate, MNI. Alternatively, in a two stage dialling user dials TETRA access number followed by TETRA SSI or even MNI and SSI.E.164 (PSTN, GSM)E.164 GWMNISSIE.164 SubscriberNumber (24 digits)UK PhoneGerman Phone
19 TETRA IPTETRA uses IP numbers in the same way as any other IP networkIndividual TETRA user can have a fixed IP number or the number can be allocated dynamicallyIn order to do the air interface signalling, TETRA IP numbers need to be mapped to TETRA ITSIs
20 ConclusionsTETRA dialling plans provide the benefits of flexibility and interoperability to meet the huge variety of needs of professional usersTETRA numbering plans have flexibility to efficiently deal both with simple fleet numbers & full E.164 international numbersTETRA addressing alignment allows for future interoperability/ roaming with GSM