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Machine Guarding MODULE 19.

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Presentation on theme: "Machine Guarding MODULE 19."— Presentation transcript:

1 Machine Guarding MODULE 19

2 What hazards exist? Crushed by or drawn into equipment
Struck by moving parts Struck by failed components or particles

3 Key parts of machines Point of operation: where work is performed on the material, such as cutting, shaping, boring, or forming of stock. Power Transmission Device: transmits energy to the part of the machine performing the work Includes flywheels, pulleys, belts, connecting rods, couplings, cams, spindles, chains, cranks, and gears.

4 Key parts of machines Operation Controls: Control mechanisms
Other moving parts: can include reciprocating, rotating, and transverse moving parts, feed mechanisms, and auxiliary parts of the machine

5 Hazards to be Guarded Things to guard include In-running nip points
Rotating equipment Flying chips or sparks Belts or gears Parts that impact or shear

6 Rotating Parts Can grip hair or clothing
Can force the body into a dangerous position Projecting pieces increase risk

7 In-Running Nip Points Between 2 rotating parts
Between rotating and tangential parts Between rotating and fixed parts which shear, crush, or abrade

8 Reciprocating Parts Risk of being struck between stationary and moving part

9 Transverse motion Continuous straight line motion
Worker struck or caught in pinch or shear point

10 Cutting action Direct injury from cutting action
Flying chips or sparks Saws, drills, lathes, mills

11 Punching action Ram stamps materials Danger at point of operation

12 Shearing action Powered blade that shears materials
Hazard at point of operation

13 Bending action Power applied to a slide to stamp/shape materials
Hazard at point of operation

14 Guarding Principles Prevent contact between hazardous moving parts and body or clothing Secure guard: not easily removed Protect from objects falling into machinery No new hazards: sharp/rough edges No interference with job/comfort/speed Allow safe lubrication: without removing guards if possible

15 Guarding Methods Location / distance Guards Fixed Interlocked
Adjustable Self-adjusting

16 Guarding Methods Devices Presence sensing Pullback Restraint
Safety controls (tripwire cable, two-hand control, etc.) Gates

17 Guarding Methods Feeding & ejection methods Robots Miscellaneous aids
Automatic and/or semi-automatic feed and ejection Robots Miscellaneous aids Awareness barriers Protective shields Hand-feeding tools

18 Fixed Guard Barrier is a permanent part of machine
Preferable over other types

19 Interlocked Guard Stops motion when guard is opened or removed
Interlocked guard on revolving drum

20 Adjustable Guard Barrier may be adjusted for variable operations
What are the drawbacks? Bandsaw blade adjustable guard

21 Self-Adjusting Guard Adjusts according to size/position of material
Circular table saw self-adjusting guard

22 Pullback Device Cables attached to operator’s hands or wrists
Removes hands from point of operation during danger period What are the drawbacks?

23 Restraint Device Cables attached to fixed point and wrists or hands
Adjustable to let hands travel in predetermined area May be accompanied by hand-feeding tools

24 Safety Tripwire Cable Device located around the perimeter of or near the danger area Operator must be able to reach the cable to stop the machine

25 Two-Hand Control Requires constant pressure on both pads to activate the machine Hands on controls at safe distance while machine is in dangerous cycle

26 Gate Must close fully to protect user before cycle will start
Gate Open Gate Closed

27 Safeguarding by Location/Distance
Location of hazardous parts that is inaccessible or not a hazard during normal operation Must maintain safe distance Training, warning, communication necessary

28 Protective Shields Protection from flying particles or splashing fluids Do not protect completely from machine hazards

29 What regulations apply?
29 CFR 1910 Subpart O 29 CFR 1910 Subpart P for hand and portable power tools API RP Machinery and Tools

30 Machinery and Machine Guarding

31 Organization Definitions General requirements for all machines
Woodworking machinery requirements Abrasive wheel machinery Mills and calenders in the rubber and plastics industries Mechanical power presses Forging machines Mechanical power-transmission apparatus

32 General Requirements 29 CFR

33 (a) Machine guarding One or more types of guarding to protect from hazards. Barrier guards Two-hand tripping devices Electronic safety devices Etc. Affixed to machine where possible Guard must not cause its own hazard

34 1910.212(a) Machine guarding Point of operation guarding:
Guarded if exposes employee to injury According to standards or Keep any part of body out of danger zone Hand tools to permit material handling – in addition to guards, not instead Examples of machines requiring guards on point of operation

35 (a) Machine guarding Revolving barrels, drums, containers guarded by interlocked enclosure (cannot turn without guard in place) Exposure to fan blades: guard openings 1/2 inch

36 1910.212(b) Anchoring fixed machinery
Machines designed for fixed location must be anchored to prevent moving This pedestal grinder is designed for anchoring, but is not anchored

37 Abrasive Wheel Machinery
29 CFR

38 1910.215(a) General requirements
Abrasive wheels must be guarded, with exceptions Guard design dependent on type of work and type of wheel

39 1910.215(a) General requirements
Work rests: Rigid, clamped in place securely Adjusted to within 1/8 inch of wheel Never adjusted while in motion Work rest is closely adjusted

40 1910.215(b)(9) Exposure adjustment
For type where operator stands in front of opening: Adjustable for decreasing wheel size Adjustable tongue guard must never be more than ¼ inch from wheel

41 (d) Mounting Inspect for damage and ring test immediately before mounting Tap with light nonmetallic implement (screwdriver, wooden mallet) If sound is dead, cracked ring may not be used Check spindle speed against maximum for wheel

42 Ring Test

43 Mechanical Power-Transmission Apparatus
29 CFR Mechanical Power-Transmission Apparatus

44 Organization of 1910.219 (a) General requirements
(b) Prime-mover guards Flywheels Cranks and connecting rods Tail rods or extension piston rods (c) Shafting (d) Pulleys

45 Organization of 1910.219 (e) Belt, rope, and chain drives
(f) Gears, sprockets, and chains (g) Guarding friction drives (h) Keys, setscrews, and other projections (i) Collars and couplings (j) Bearings and facilities for oiling (k) Guarding of clutches, cutoff couplings, and clutch pulleys

46 Organization of (l) Belt shifters, clutches, shippers, poles, perches, and fasteners (m) Standard guards-general requirements (o) Approved materials (p) Care of equipment

47 Hazards on Oil and Gas Sites
Machine Guarding

48 Parts Requiring Guarding
Drive belts and shafts – mud pumps and tank area Pony rods Rotating parts Shale shaker Agitator shafts & couplings Moving generator parts (explore)

49 Mud Pumps

50 Shale Shaker

51 Generators

52 Parts Requiring Guarding
Air compressors Crown sheaves Kelly bushing – or controls Rotary chain drive Air hoist line Drawworks Bench grinder wheels

53 Crown Sheaves

54 Kelly and Bushing Alternative Abatement: STD CH-1

55 Drawworks

56 Parts Requiring Guarding
Belts, drive chains, gears and drives on power and hand tools Traveling blocks Sheaves Cathead?

57 Drilling Line

58 Traveling Block

59 Hoisting Line

60 Safety Responsibilities
Machine Guarding

61 Safety Responsibilities
Management: Ensure all machinery is properly guarded Supervisors: Train employees on specific guard rules in their areas Ensure machine guards remain in place and are functional Immediately correct machine guard deficiencies Employees: Do not remove guards unless machine is locked and tagged Report machine guard problems to supervisors immediately Do not operate equipment unless guards are in place

62 Training Operators/affected employees should receive training on:
Hazards associated with particular machines How the safeguards provide protection and the hazards for which they are intended How and why to use the safeguards How and when safeguards can be removed and by whom What to do if a safeguard is damaged, missing, or unable to provide adequate protection

63 Hand and Portable Power Tools
29 CFR 1910 Subpart P and 1926 Subpart I

64 Construction vs. General Industry
Construction, alteration, or repair? Applicable standard depends on type of operations: 1910 Subpart P: Hand and Portable Powered Tools and Other Hand-Held Equipment 1926 Subpart I: Tools – Hand and Power

65 General Employer is responsible for safe condition of tools and equipment Including equipment furnished by employee Compressed air must not be used for cleaning unless: Reduced to <30 p.s.i. Only with effective chip guarding and PPE

66 1910.243(a) Portable powered tools
Portable circular saws >2 in. guarded Automatic return to covering position Switches and controls: constant pressure control for circular and chain saws other controls for other tools as appropriate

67 1910.243(a) Portable powered tools
Portable belt sanding machine guarding Nip points Unused run of sanding belt Cracked saws: remove from service Grounding: Meet Subpart S

68 1910.243(b) Pneumatic powered tools and hose
Tool retainer to prevent ejection Airhose designed for applied pressure and service

69 1910.243 Guarding of portable powered tools
Portable abrasive wheels: Must be guarded Ring test and inspection Explosive actuated fastening tools Power lawnmowers Guarding Controls and shutoff device Labeling, manuals Design

70 1910.244 Other portable tools and equipment
Jacks Loading and marking Operation and maintenance Abrasive blast cleaning nozzles: operating valve and support

71 General requirements Maintained in safe condition whether furnished by employer or employee Shall be guarded when designed to accommodate guards Moving parts that create hazards shall be guarded by one or more methods Fan openings; anchoring machinery

72 1926.300 General requirements Abrasive wheel guards
PPE if necessary for objects, particles, gases Allowable switches by tool type

73 1926.301 Hand tools Use of unsafe hand tools not permitted
Wrenches shall not be used when jaws are sprung to the point of slippage Including adjustable, pipe, end & socket wrenches Impact tools shall be kept free of mushroomed heads Such as drift pins, wedges & chisels Wooden handles shall be kept Free of splinters or cracks Tight in the tool

74 1926.302 Power-operated hand tools
Electric power-operated tools Double-insulated or grounded Never hold by the cord Pneumatic power-operated tools Secure tools, attachments, and muzzle Compressed air use restrictions Never hold by the hose Reduce pressure in case of hose failure

75 1926.302 Power-operated hand tools
Fuel operated tools Stop while refueling or servicing Watch concentrations in enclosed spaces Hydraulic power tools Fire-resistant fluids Safe operating pressures Powder-actuated tools

76 1926 Subpart I Organization
Abrasive wheels and tools Woodworking tools Jacks Air receivers Mechanical power-transmission apparatus

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