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Postwar Uncertainty Chapter 15 Section 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Postwar Uncertainty Chapter 15 Section 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Postwar Uncertainty Chapter 15 Section 1

2 Main Idea The postwar period was one of loss and uncertainty but also one of invention, creativity, and new ideas that changed the way people look(ed) at the world

3 The world changed after WWI
1900 1928

4 A changed world The horrors of WWI shattered the Enlightenment belief in progress and reason So people began questioning these and other traditional beliefs which lead to new ways to see the world and new ideas

5 A Revolution (change) in Science
Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity Albert Einstein was a German-born physicist who came up with new ideas on space, time, energy and matter One such idea is his theory of relativity: the speed of light is constant (always the same), but time and space are NOT constant (they change). Space and time are relative to the speed of light Time will be less if traveling at the speed of light or faster THE UNIVERSE IS UNCERTAIN!

6 A Revolution (change) in Science
Sigmund Freud’s theory on the human mind Sigmund Freud was an Austrian physician who treated people with psychological problems He developed the theory that: Much of human behavior is irrational. This irrational part of the mind is the unconscious, and it is driven by a desire to gain pleasure; NOT by reason Freud’s ideas weakened faith in reason!

7 New Literature In their works, writers expressed the anxieties felt after World War I (WWI) New literary themes included Loss of faith and hope; ex: F. Scott Fitzgerald An uncertain future A bleak life No escape from bad situations; ex: Franz Kafka New way of writing: stream of consciousness Written as if it’s the thoughts and feelings as they happen in the mind

8 New philosophy Existentialism: belief that there is no universal meaning to life; each person creates his or her own meaning Existentialist were influenced by Friedrich Nietzsche -Nietzsche was a German philosopher; believed democracy, reason, and progress stifled creativity and action -Nietzsche urged humans to return to valuing pride, assertiveness, an strength

9 Revolution (change) in the Arts
After the War, artists rebelled against the earlier realistic styles of painting They didn’t want to be traditional They didn’t want use reason when creating Wanted to depict the inner world of imagination and emotion

10 Revolution in the Arts Expressionism: show emotions and feelings
With bold colors and distorted forms

11 Revolution in the Arts Cubism: Inspired by non-Western cultures (African culture, Native American culture, etc); geometric shapes

12 Revolution in the Arts Surrealism: depict dreams or objects in unrealistic ways; inspired by Freud’s ideas

13 Revolution in the Arts Music composers moved away from traditional styles and experimented with new styles Irregular rhythms and harsh combinations of sounds Example: New popular music style emerged, called jazz From the United States, developed by African American musicians Lively, loose beats Example:

14 Society Challenges Convention
World War I had disrupted traditional social patterns People, especially young people were willing to break with the past and experiment with new values 1900 1920

15 Women’s Roles Change During the War, women had been on their own (men were gone to war) and many had had to work in the war effort They realized they could be members of public society (not just at home) They realized they could be independent and work  Women demanded the right to vote, which they received in several nations after the War U.S., Britain, Germany, Sweden, and Austria

16 Women’s Roles Change To show their independence, many women adopted new styles New hairstyles: “bobbed” hair New fashion: looser and shorter dresses, less cloth; makeup New lifestyle: drove cars, smoked in public, voted, worked; began using birth control

17 Technological Advances Improve Life
Many technological advances developed for the war were put to use after the war for the benefit of society Other new technologies were also developed after the war

18 The Car Alters Society A lot of the technology used to improve the car was developed during the war: electric starter, air-filled tires, better engines Before the war only the very rich could afford to have a car, after the war the car middle class people could afford them as well More people driving People travel for pleasure now People moved away from the city (could live far from your job) New types of service industries to serve tourists

19 Airplanes Transform Travel
Planes had been used for combat in the War, now people were interested in using them for travel during peace time In 1927, American pilot Charles Lindbergh became the first man to fly across the Atlantic, from New York to Paris In 1932, American pilot Amelia Earhart became the first woman to fly across the Atlantic Most major passenger airlines were established in the 1920s; only the rich could afford it though

20 Radio and Movies After the war, radios were mass produced, so most people could have one. The first radio station appeared in 1920, after that the radio became the most popular for of entertainment The movie industry grew after the war, it grew into an entertainment industry (not just art) Charlie Chaplin This allowed for the emergence of a mass culture, with everyone watching, hearing, the same things across nations and across the world

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