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The 1860 Presidential Election in Missouri

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1 The 1860 Presidential Election in Missouri

2 Road map The 1860 election in Missouri: teaching opportunities
The European Context A diverse state: no easy conclusions Missouri splits the nation in half Comparisons that work: Missouri Democrats: moderate, war, peace, copperhead, “States-Rights,” conservative Germans …. Missouri Republicans: radicals, moderates, former Whigs, anti-Catholic Nativists, German wide-awakes, … The Election: national contest, local politics

3 Europe, 1848

4 Berlin Uprising, 1848

5 The crisis of democratic revolutions: the “forty-eighters”
Unrest throughout Europe caused the Revolutions of 1848 Middle-class liberals desired greater political participation Nationalities demanded independence Conservatives manage to put down rebellions, remain in place; punitive aftermath

6 Missouri: A Diverse People
Before statehood: French, Spanish, Native American residents, as well as Indian and African slaves 1830s: German Catholics from the wine regions 1840s: radical Germans fleeing from political oppression 1840s: Irish immigrants fleeing poverty and famine About 114,000 slaves Opposing viewpoints; two thirds were foreign-born

7 Germans in Missouri: wine regions
Augusta Herrmann Ozark Highlands Ozark Mountain Southeastern Missouri Central Missouri Western Missouri

8 Americans move to Missouri
Settlers from the upper south: Virginia, Kentucky, Arkansas, and Tennessee Pro-slavery (though most did not own slaves) Democrats

9 The Missouri Compromise

10 1824 Freedom Law Provided that slaves who had resided in a free territory or state could sue for their liberty About 300 known suits; at least 2/3 were successful Most of the successful suits were brought by female plaintiffs Rachel v. Walker, 1834 Dred and Harriet Scott,

11 Missouri before the war

12 Slavery in Missouri, 1860

13 German Wide-Awakes, 1856

14 The Scott family sues for freedom 1846 - 1857

15 Trouble on the Western Border

16 Panic of 1857 Bank run, 1857 The price of peanuts

17 John Brown,

18 Harper’s Ferry, October 16-18, 1859

19 The Gateway: St. Louis in 1859

20 The Prize: The St. Louis Arsenal,1860

21 Democratic Nominees John C. Breckinridge, Kentucky
Stephen A. Douglas, Illinois

22 Constitutional Union Party
John Bell, Tennessee

23 Political Convention Debacle: The Democrats storm out – across the street in Charleston
Charleston, SC, April 23, 1860 Baltimore, MD, June 18, 1860

24 A few Republican Nominees: May 1860, Chicago clockwise: Simon Cameron, Salmon P. Chase, Wm. Henry Seward

25 … and a few more Republican nominees
Edward Bates, MO Abraham Lincoln, IL

26 Election politics: section and race

27 1860 cartoon lampooning Democrat party divisions

28 The Democrats were divided into 3 races and 2 parties
The Republicans supported Lincoln because: He was moderate on slavery Famed for Lincoln-Douglas debates Would win Illinois (Western state, important swing state) The main issue in 1860: the extension of slavery Lincoln and Republicans barely campaign in the South; do not appear on any southern ballots except border states Missouri is the only state in the Union to carry all 4 candidates in its slate

29 1860: Two momentous decisions for Missouri
The Governorship: Claiborne Jackson vs. Gov. Robert Stewart (August 1860) – CFJ was a “Douglas” Democrat, secretly pro-secession The Presidency: Abraham Lincoln vs. Stephen A. Douglas, John C. Breckinridge, and John Bell (November 1860)

30 Governor Claiborne F. Jackson 1805 - 1862
Runs against Sample Orr, a Constitutional Union candidate … and against Gov. Hancock Lee Jackson, a Breckenridge Democrat … and also against James Gardenhire, a Republican

31 Missouri 1860 gubernatorial results
Claiborne Fox Jackson (SAD): 46.9 % Sample Orr (CU): % Hancock Lee Jackson: (BD) % James Gardenhire: (Rep.) %

32 Presidential Running mates

33 1860 Presidential Election in Missouri Counties

34 1860 Presidential election results in Missouri, by county


36    1860 Election Results Bell wins three states (Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee) Breckenridge carried the South Lincoln carried the Northern states and won the electoral vote, though earning less than 40% of all votes cast: Douglas won two states On December 20, 1860, South Carolina seceded from the Union



39 Causes of the Civil War

40 The Unfinished Capitol, 1861

41 James Buchanan,


43 Inaugural, March 4, 1861 In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow-countrymen, and not in mine, is the momentous issue of civil war. The Government will not assail you. You can have no conflict without being yourselves the aggressors. You have no oath registered in heaven to destroy the Government, while I shall have the most solemn one to "preserve, protect, and defend it."34  I am loath to close. We are not enemies, but friends. We must not be enemies. Though passion may have strained it must not break our bonds of affection. The mystic chords of memory, stretching from every battlefield and patriot grave to every living heart and hearthstone all over this broad land, will yet swell the chorus of the Union, when again touched, as surely they will be, by the better angels of our nature.

44 Camp Jackson "Oh! Oh! Oh! Ah! Ah! Ah!—The time of our glory is a-coming. We yet will see the time, when all of us will shine, And drive the Hessians from our happy land of Canaan."

45 Walnut Street riot, 1861

46 Two paths to radicalism: Politics and the Home Front
Loyalty Oaths Forced enrollments Punitive fines Exiling dissidents Democrats: what about a loyal opposition? The radicals have the floor! Women have to take over men’s work at home Dissident women are silenced or exiled New opportunities for a diverse people

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