Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Monetary System This is a test.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Monetary System This is a test."— Presentation transcript:

1 Monetary System This is a test

2 Monetary System Relationship between monetary system and foreign exchange rates Historical development Fixed vs floating exchange rates Role of the IMF and World Bank Implications for managers

3 International Monetary System
Currency exchange rates depend on the structure of the international monetary system In 2003 of all IMF members currencies Only 19% were free floating 25% were managed float 8% were adjustable peg 22% were fixed peg 4% were fixed by a currency board 22% were not currency of their own (use Euro, US Dollar)


5 Evolution of the International Monetary System
Gold Standard: currencies pegged to gold value Convertibility guaranteed By 1880 most on gold standard Balance of trade equilibrium for all countries Value of exports should equal value of imports Flow of gold used to make up differences Abandoned in 1914 Failed resumption after WWI Great Depression

6 Bretton Woods ( ) 44 countries met to design a new system in 1944 Established: International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank IMF: maintain order in monetary system World Bank: promote general economic development Fixed exchange rates pegged to the US Dollar US Dollar pegged to gold at $35 per ounce Countries maintained their currencies ± 1% of the fixed rate; buy/sell own currency to maintain level

7 The Role of the IMF IMF maintained exchange rate 187 members by 2003
discipline National governments had to manage inflation through their money supply flexibility Provides loans to help members states with temporary balance-of-payment deficit; Allows time to bring down inflation Relieves pressures to devalue Excessive drawing from IMF funds came with IMF supervision of monetary and fiscal policies Allowed to 10% devaluations and more with IMF approval 187 members by 2003

8 The Role of the World Bank
World Bank (IBRD) role (International Bank for Reconstruction & Development) Refinanced post-WWII reconstruction and development Provides low-interest long term loans to developing economies The International Development Agency (IDA), an arm of the bank created in 1960 Raises funds from member states Loans only to poorest countries 50 year repayment at 1% per year interest

9 Collapse of Bretton Woods
Devaluation pressures on US dollar after 20 years Lyndon Johnson policies Vietnam war financing Welfare program financing Nixon ended gold convertibility of US dollar in 1971 US dollar was devalued and dealers started speculating against it for further devaluation Bretton Woods fixed exchange rates abandoned in January 1972

10 Jamaica Agreement 1976 Floating rates declared acceptable
Gold abandoned as reserve asset; IMF returned gold reserves to members at current prices Proceeds placed in trust fund to help poor nations IMF quotas – member country contributions – increased; membership now 182 countries Less-develop, non-oil exporting countries given more access to IMF IMF continued its role of helping countries cope with macroeconomic and exchange rate problems

11 Case for Floating Exchange Rates The Case for Fixed Exchange Rates
Monetary policy autonomy Trade balance adjustments helped The Case for Fixed Exchange Rates Monetary discipline Speculation limited Uncertainty reduced Trade balance adjustment effects on inflation controlled Who is right?

12 Recent Activities and the IMF
Mexican Crisis 1995 Russian Ruble crisis1995 Asian crisis 1997/1998 Events The investment boom Excess capacity The debt bomb Expanding imports The crisis How does the IMF achieve results? Inappropriate policies? Moral Hazard? Lack of accountability?

13 Managerial Implications
Currency management Currency market does not always work as expected Government intervention Speculative activity Business strategy Movements in exchange rates are difficult to predict Forward market is imperfect predictor of exchange rate movements Forward exchange rate market covers risk for months not years Maintenance of strategic flexibility required Disperse manufacturing Outsource Corporate-government relations

Download ppt "Monetary System This is a test."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google