2 ConnectionConnect your learning to the content of the lessonShare the process by which the learning will actually take placeExplore the outcomes of the learning, emphasising why this will be beneficial for the learnerDemonstrationUse formative feedback – Assessment for LearningVary the groupings within the classroom for the purpose of learning – individual; pair; group/team; friendship; teacher selected; single sex; mixed sexOffer different ways for the students to demonstrate their understandingAllow the students to “show off” their learningConsolidationStructure active reflection on the lesson content and the process of learningSeek transfer between “subjects”Review the learning from this lesson and preview the learning for the nextPromote ways in which the students will rememberA “news broadcast” approach to learningActivationConstruct problem-solving challenges for the studentsUse a multi-sensory approach – VAKPromote a language of learning to enable the students to talk about their progress or obstacles to itLearning as an active process, so the students aren’t passive receptors
4 Practical Investigation... Take your ruler and investigate the sound wave it creates by “twanging” it with your fingers. (Take care not to break it)Think about the relationship between pitch (frequency) and length.Then make a verbal prediction for what might happen with a string or tube and draw a diagram.Now test out and write down what you find.
5 Draw a circle in your book and write inside it to explain How a sound wave moves through the air? (1/3rd page)
6 P1.5.3 Sounda) Sound waves are longitudinal waves and cause vibrations in a medium, which are detected as sound.NB: Sound is limited to human hearing and no details of the structure of the ear are required.b) The pitch of a sound is determined by its frequency and loudness by its amplitude.c) Echoes are reflections of sounds.P1.5.3 Sound
7 Explaining Soundwaves? Particles move at 90 to the direction of travelParticles move in direction of the waveThe pattern is regularVibration is perpendicular to the direction of travelParticles are compressedEnergy is transferredParticles move side to sideParticles undergo rarefaction
8 How is Sound Produced... (watch the movie) – RECAP Y9 The vocal folds, also known commonly as vocal cords, are composed of twin infolding of mucous membrane stretched horizontally across the larynx.They vibrate, modulating the flow of air being expelled from the lungs.Open during inhalation, closed when holding one's breath, and vibrating for speech or singing.They oscillate 440 times per second when singing A (above middle C).The folds are controlled via the vagus nerve.They are white because of scant blood circulation.Vocal cordsTracheaLarynxTASK: Imagine you are a doctor talking to a patient. They have problems talking as their vagus nerve is damaged. You will need to explain the mechanics of speech so they understand you. Read the text to help you remember from medical school!
9 How is Sound heard... (watch the movie) – RECAP Y9 The outer ear collects sound (green). The sound is amplified through the middle ear (red) which is hollow, and filled with liquid, containing a sensory epithelium that is studded with hair cells.The tiny "hairs" from the cells stick out into the fluid. The hair cells release a chemical neurotransmitter when stimulated. In this way sound waves are transformed into nerve impulses. (purple)The nerve impulses travel to both sides of the brain with the vestibular nerve dealing with sensing balance.The human ear can generally hear sounds with frequencies between 20 Hz and 20 kHz (the audio range).
10 a/b) The Trumpet Trumpet Chromatic Scale Period ms Frequency Hz (Calculated)BbC4250261BC#277D293Eb311E329F349F#3333370G392Ab415
11 a/b) The Real WorldA tuning fork produces a note with only one frequency. The shape of the wave on the oscilloscope is very smooth.However, the frequency of the harmonics in a real instrument may be twice, three times, four times or even more times the fundamental frequency. All these frequencies together make up the note. The bottom line here shows the wave pattern formed by the fundamental and harmonic frequencies when the note is played on the instrument.
12 a/b Real SoundsclarinetWe now know that we can convert our longitudinal sound wave to a transverse wave to show on a screen. If we look at these three traces of a middle C note (261Hz) we can see they are all different but seem to have similar pattern in terms of frequency as up and 1 down takes (1/261)th of a second or the length of an arrow! You need to try an ignore the funny fluctuations, this is due to the timbre of the notes – or richness that some from the instrument itself due to the nature of the pipes or strings.violinsaxophone
13 Sound RefractionBASIC: Just as a submarine can use refraction to hide its acoustic signature from surface vessels, the same principle of sound refraction can be used to prevent certain observers from hearing the noise.FURTHER: For example, an outdoor observer close to the ground will have sound waves refracted toward him when the ground is cooler than the ambient air and away from him when the ground is hotter than the air.IN DEPTH: When the sun warms the Earth’s surface there is a temperature gradient. The speed of sound decreases as temperature decreases.The sound wave fronts travel faster near the ground. This means that sound is refracted upwards away from listeners on the ground creating an “acoustic shadow” at you move away from the source.This reverses when the ground is covered with snow or over a lake in the morning.Underwater this speed depends on pressure (depth), temperature and salinity allowing submarines to hide in certain sections of water!
16 M4. • Q is louder• Q is higher (pitch/note but not frequency) [if loudness and pitch both mentioned but direction wrong / absent credit 1 mark]• louder because bigger amplitude/height• higher pitch because higher frequency/shorter wavelength/waves closer together• factor of 2 mentioned w.r.t either for each • for 1 mark
17 Data Trends... (Extension) Discuss this data with a partner. Can you see a trend in the numbers?Can you comment on...Gas -> Liquid -> Solidthe mass of the molecules or compounds? (as best you know)Ethanol C2H5OHChloroform CHCl3Glass SiO2The bonding or strength of the structuresYou can use the periodic table to help you?Think helium and voice box (fixed )
21 Ultrasound – HT Questions As a radiographer it is your task to make measurements of a foetus while it is in the womb. When you take a prenatal ultrasound scan, the echo of the pulse of ultrasound returns in 300 microseconds.If the sound travels at a speed of 1500 m/s in the fluids of the womb, you can work out the depth of the tissue that is returning the echo.Ultrasound equipment produces ultrasound with a frequency between 2MHz and 18 MHz. What are the wavelengths of ultrasound at these two frequencies?Why does the radiographer not recommend X-rays as a method of viewing the foetus?Why does she use ultrasound instead?When the ultrasound enters the bladder, the wave changes direction, producing an image of the organ on the monitor. What causes this change in the direction of the wave?1540 m/sc = 3 x 108 ms-11500ms-1 x 150 x 10-6s = 0.225mc=f so c/f = =1540ms-1/2 x 106Hz = 7.7 x 10-4mor=1540ms-1/18 x 106Hz = 8.6 x 10-5m