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T-JTA® Authorized Instruction

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1 T-JTA® Authorized Instruction
*Instructors for this seminar are certified by Psychological Publications, Inc. Publishers of the Taylor-Johnson Temperament Analysis® (T-JTA®). Taylor-Johnson Temperament Analysis® and T-JTA® are registered trademarks of Psychological Publications, Inc. PPI 2018 1/3/2019

2 T-JTA Certification Each trainee who successfully completes this seminar will be certified to purchase and utilize the T-JTA, provided that he or she:  Completes an Application to Purchase/Qualification Summary, which will be signed and returned to PPI by the instructor  Receives approval from PPI based upon standard educational requirements All trainees should be pre-approved by the instructor prior to seminar attendance. PPI 2018 1/3/2019

3 T-JTA Training Goals After completing this seminar, you should have a working knowledge of T-JTA test fundamentals including: T-JTA Administration Online Administration and Scoring Software Administration and Scoring Handscoring Selecting the T-JTA question edition Test-taking procedures T-JTA Scoring and Profiling Using computer scoring software Interpretation Understanding T-JTA results to accurately and effectively counsel clients PPI 2018 1/3/2019

4 Administering the T-JTA
PPI 2018 1/3/2019

5 Three Administration Options
T-JTA Online T-JTA Computer Scoring Software Handscoring PPI 2018 1/3/2019

6 Interpretation PPI 2018 1/3/2019

7 T-JTA Profiles Four available T-JTA editions:
Regular Shaded Profile (PR) – for plotting percentile scores; includes four labeled zone designations: “Excellent,” “Acceptable,” “Improvement desirable,” and Improvement needed”  Shaded Profile Without Zone Designations (PRW) – includes shaded areas without zone descriptions; preferable to counselors who feel labels may be threatening to sensitive or defensive counselees  PPI 2018 1/3/2019

8 T-JTA Profiles, Cont. Regular Sten Profile (SP) – standard score profile (not converted); is divided into ten equal interval score ranges (stens): 10-extremely high, 9-very high, 8-high, 7-high average, 6 or 5-average, 4-low average, 3-low, 2-very low, 1-extremely low  Student Sten Profile (SSP) –indicates the same intervals but may be preferable in adolescent counseling as only “positive” trait names appear at the top of the graph; “negative” trait names have been eliminated  PPI 2018 1/3/2019

9 Clinical Use of T-JTA Profiles
 All T-JTA profile editions are specifically designed for discussing test results with counselees, unless in the clinical judgment of the counselor, such visual examination of test results would be unduly threatening  Whenever possible, a profile should be used with a counselee as graphic portrayal helps the individual to see him- or herself more objectively, and may aid in the development of new insights  Traits and trait opposites can be easily explained to a respondent by referring to the definitions printed under the graph  If a shaded Profile is used, the shaded zones should serve as a flexible guide to interpretation, rather than absolute or fixed lines of demarcation PPI 2018 1/3/2019

10 Percentile Profile  A percentile score indicates how a respondent compares to the standardization sample of their particular norm grouping Example: a score in the 50th percentile indicates that 50% of the sample scored lower than the respondent  The Shaded areas on a profile provide a guide to evaluating the scores obtained; the shadings represent a consensus of clinical judgment and experience of standardization professionals regarding the implications of T-JTA scores  If all a respondent’s scores fall in the darker shaded zones – “excellent” and “acceptable” ranges – then he or she is well- adjusted and has higher potential for individual happiness and marital success; the opposite is true for score concentrations in “improvement desirable/needed” ranges PPI 2018 1/3/2019

11 Interpretation of Mid Counts
 A Mid response is generally given when a respondent is unable to answer a question with a definite “yes” or “no;” although, respondents will often select the Mid response to indicate that they are “sometimes” one way or another  As individual trait Mid counts and the Total Mid Count provide an assessment of test-taking validity, a large number of Mids yields vague or uncertain results  In order to preserve test validity, respondents should be instructed to avoid Mids as often as possible. PPI 2018 1/3/2019

12 Mid Count Invalidity Total Mids 53
Tests should be re-administered when Mid counts exceed: 30 per adult test, or 40 per adolescent test Total Mids 53 When a test is re-administered to reduce Mids, the Total Mid Count on the original test should be taken into consideration later in evaluating overall results. PPI 2018 1/3/2019

13 Self & Criss-Cross Tests
Mid Count Meanings Self & Criss-Cross Tests Self tests: excessive Mids may indicate a lack of self-knowledge, and in some cases, indecision, anxiety, and poor ego-strength, suggesting a need for achieving better self-understanding Criss-Cross tests: excessive Mids may indicate a lack of understanding of the person being described, suggesting a need for achieving better awareness of the significant other  Important Note: 5 or more Mids in any one category should alert the counselor to concern or conflict in this area; it is helpful to review these items. PPI 2018 1/3/2019

14 Interpretation of the Attitude Scale Sten Score
Attitude Scale: provides a second validity check, measuring test-taking bias; reveals how a respondent’s attitude at the time of the test influenced the way he or she answered questions Attitude Scale Sten Scores fall into three ranges: High (stens 8,9,10); Neutral (stens 4,5,6,7); and Low (stens 1,2,3) Depending upon the Attitude Scale Score, respondents may not be as well or poorly adjusted as test results seem to indicate. PPI 2018 1/3/2019

15 Attitude Scale Score Ranges
A Attitude Scale Score suggests that a respondent tended to give self-favoring answers, thereby denying the existence of any faults or problems; high attitude scores commonly reflect a disinclination to be objective in self-rating and anxiety regarding what others think A Attitude Scale Score suggests that a respondent was inclined – either consciously or unconsciously – to answer in a negative, self-deprecating manner; while a low score may indicate genuinely low adjustment, more often it reflects deep concern about oneself or a desire to impress the counselor with the seriousness of one’s problems A Attitude Scale Score suggests that a respondent answered in an open, unbiased manner High Low Neutral PPI 2018 1/3/2019

16 Criss-Cross Test Attitude Scores
In Criss-Cross testing, a High Attitude Scale Sten Score suggests that a respondent tended to give answers that would put the person being described in a favorable light Conversely, a Low Attitude Scale Sten Score may reflect negative or critical bias toward the person being described Elevated Attitude scores are common on premarital tests, where a respondent is unaware of, or prone to deny the existence of faults or problems on the part of spouse-to-be. Lowered Attitude scores are not uncommon on Criss-Cross tests of persons seeking marital counseling, particularly when there is hostility or conflict. PPI 2018 1/3/2019

17 Interpretation of the T-JTA Traits
T-JTA personality “trait:” defined as a collection of behaviors, attitudes, and feelings, sufficiently interrelated as to be used and measured as a unit Nine personality traits are measured by the T-JTA, each paired with its opposite; statistically, each scale represents a unique aspect of personality T-JTA traits should be considered in combination with the clinical history and in light of both the information and attitudes conveyed by the counselee and cultural considerations that may influence trait categories Note: Personality test results represent only a general measure of an individual’s adjustment at a given point in time; successive tests may reflect personal growth and change. PPI 2018 1/3/2019

18 Trait A: Nervous vs. Composed
Nervous is defined as tense, high-strung, apprehensive Composed is defined as calm, relaxed, tranquil Trait A: measures nervousness, whether induced by internal or external stimuli, or whether experienced internally or manifested in external signs and symptoms; measures the degree to which individual is:  Readily disturbed by trying circumstances  Governed by fear and apprehension  Distracted by internal pressures  Dependent upon food or drugs to reduce tension  Visibly nervous, restless or excitable PPI 2018 1/3/2019

19 Trait A: Interpretive Considerations
A high Nervous score indicates tension and apprehension; it may signify a temporary problem (some immediate stressful circumstance) or a persistent, chronic state As a high Nervous score suggests unresolved conflict and a Depressive score reflects certain components of anxiety, high Nervous and Depressive scores often occur together This combination of scores is an indicator of emotional pressure and stress; individuals who are under stress and seek counseling frequently score high on the Nervous and Depressive scales PPI 2018 1/3/2019

20 Trait B: Depressive vs. Lighthearted
Depressive is defined as pessimistic, discouraged, or dejected in feeling or manner Lighthearted is characterized by a happy, cheerful, and optimistic attitude or disposition This category measures depressive states and reactions directly, and depressive tendencies that are indirectly indicated through certain attitudes Direct Measures Indirect Measures Feelings of apathy, despondency, pessimism; preoccupation with problems or misfortunes; emotional exhaustion; contemplation of suicide Feelings of not belonging or being unwanted and unimportant; easily disheartened by criticism or discouraged due to a lack of self-confidence PPI 2018 1/3/2019

21 Trait B: Interpretive Considerations
Depression affects one’s sense of well-being and lowers personal, social, scholastic, and vocational functioning; it may be related to a specific traumatic event/personal crisis or it may be a more persistent condition When an individual is in conflict or under stress, a high Depressive score is frequently found in combination with high Nervous and Subjective scores; improvement in one of these areas appears to improve the others When an extremely high Depressive score is accompanied by a very low Self-disciplined/Impulsive score, caution is indicated; medical or psychiatric evaluation is advisable, especially when the history reveals self-destructive tendencies PPI 2018 1/3/2019

22 Trait C: Active-Social vs. Quiet
Active-Social is defined as energetic, enthusiastic, and socially involved Quiet is characterized by socially inactive, lethargic, and withdrawn attitudes or behaviors This scale consists of 10 items that measure activity level, and 10 items that measure social participation; respective characteristics include the following: Activity Level Social Participation A feeling of energy and vitality; briskness of movement; keeping “on the go;” enjoying new and diverse activities Participation in clubs, community or group activities; an interest in and a preference for being with friends and people PPI 2018 1/3/2019

23 Trait C: Interpretive Considerations
Active-Social is a major component of extraversion; a high score usually indicates that the respondent likes to take an active role in others’ lives Unless combined with low Sympathetic/Indifferent, high Dominant, and high Hostile scores (which may indicate interpersonal alienation), high Active-Social generally parallels good adjustment in other areas A low Active-Social score suggests a tendency to withdraw socially and an inability to tolerate activity; low scores coupled with high Depressive and low Dominant/Submissive may indicate feelings of disinterest and inadequacy resulting in fear of rejection The Active-Social scale is important to consider in premarital and marital testing, as a considerable disparity may represent a potential source of conflict PPI 2018 1/3/2019

24 Trait D: Expressive-Responsive vs. Inhibited
Expressive-Responsive is defined as spontaneous, affectionate, and demonstrative Inhibited is characterized by restrained, unresponsive, or repressed behavior The questions in this category are designed to measure the degree to which an individual is able to both openly demonstrate and respond to feelings of warmth and affection; items measure personal forms and broader indications of expressiveness including the ability to:  Be talkative, animated and enthusiastic  Express tenderness, sympathy and pleasure  Show affection without embarrassment or discomfort PPI 2018 1/3/2019

25 Trait D: Interpretive Considerations
Like Active-Social, Expressive-Responsive (E-R) is a component of extraversion; unlike social involvement, however, E-R also measures the expression of emotion on an interpersonal or intimate basis As E-R scores are concerned with the overt expression of emotion, it should be examined in conjunction with the Sympathetic scale (which measures inner-feeling capacity); a combination of high Sympathetic and low E-R/Inhibited is fairly common and suggests emotional blocking or an inability to demonstrate feelings that do exist; however, low Sympathetic/Indifferent with high E-R suggests that an individual appears warm and caring, but actually lacks empathy and compassion The E-R scale is important in premarital and marital counseling as it relates to the level of affection in a relationship, helping to reveal the degree of closeness PPI 2018 1/3/2019

26 Trait E: Sympathetic vs. Indifferent
Sympathetic is defined as kind, understanding, and compassionate Indifferent is characterized by unconcerned, insensitive, and unfeeling attitudes The Sympathetic scale measures the individual’s inner-feeling capacity for others; a high score suggests social consciousness and a sense of concern for those who may be less fortunate or in need. The Sympathetic scale has important implications for marriage and family; items relevant to interpersonal relationships concern:  The ability to put oneself in another’s place  The ability to listen sympathetically  The ability to be tender with children and the elderly  The inclination to be forgiving/willing to apologize PPI 2018 1/3/2019

27 Trait E: Interpretive Considerations
As sympathy involves concern for others, it is a vital component of good relationships and a desirable quality for persons in service occupations An extremely high score on Sympathetic may indicate vulnerability and a tendency to be taken advantage of (unless balanced by high Objective and/or Self-disciplined) A low Sympathetic score may indicate a denial of feelings or a self-protective withdrawal from emotional involvement, especially when inclined toward Inhibited Important note: The Sympathetic scale has the highest mean raw score and the lowest standard deviation of any trait. Thus, it does not take many unsympathetic responses for the score to drop rapidly. PPI 2018 1/3/2019

28 Trait F: Subjective vs. Objective
Subjective is defined as emotional, self-absorbed, and illogical Objective is defined as fair-minded, reasonable, and rational This scale measures the degree to which an individual’s ability to think and react clearly and logically is influenced by emotionality; some items are concerned with neurotic sensitivity, while others relate to one’s ability to judge reality accurately; specific items relate to the tendencies to: Be suspicious and to hold grudges Be overly sensitive, self-conscious, easily embarrassed Misjudge the motives or behavior of others Be overly introspective and to daydream PPI 2018 1/3/2019

29 Trait F: Interpretive Considerations
A high Subjective score suggests that inner feelings are interfering with an individual’s ability to be logical in dealing with people or solving problems; highly Objective people can reason without bias or distortion, and thus tend to be effective leaders When a high Subjective score is accompanied by a high Dominant score, an individual’s expectations and demands on others may be based more on emotion than reason, appearing inconsiderate or unfair Extremely high Objective scores can suggest a tendency to be overly analytical, which may interfere with feeling-capacity and negatively affect interpersonal relationships Important Note: As this scale can provide indications of serious problems, the counselor is advised to do a response analysis of questions weighted 1 or 2. PPI 2018 1/3/2019

30 Trait G: Dominant vs. Submissive
Dominant is defined as confident, assertive, and competitive Submissive is defined as passive, compliant, and dependent Dominant is not intended to describe the overly aggressive individual who seeks only to exercise authority over others for his or her own purposes; rather, it suggests the kind of person who has a capability to show leadership and initiative; general score implications include the following: High Dominant: positive indication of ego strength; self-assured, influential, competitive and confident Low Dominant: poor self-image; tends to be a follower self-doubting, insecure, unable to be assertive PPI 2018 1/3/2019

31 Trait G: Interpretive Considerations
While a score in the Submissive range typically indicates a poor self- image, it may also represent deeply ingrained, cultural conditioning in certain communities A very high Dominant score suggests an individual who is domineering and likely to arouse resentment A high Dominant Score accompanied by a high Hostile score suggests forcefulness as to justify the expression of angry feelings, while high Dominant balanced with high Sympathetic and low Hostile suggests respect for others and appropriate assertiveness Important Note: The question as to whether similar or dissimilar scores on this scale are more conducive to marital compatibility cannot be answered without knowledge of the marital history. One passive partner may resent dominance, and another, find it reassuring. PPI 2018 1/3/2019

32 Trait H: Hostile vs. Tolerant
Hostile is defined as critical, argumentative, and punitive Tolerant is defined as accepting, patient, and humane Some of the items on this scale are concerned with overt manifestations of hostility, including the tendency to be critical, impatient, argumentative, sarcastic, and readily angered; others relate to attitudes of prejudice or disrespect, which may or may not be openly expressed; specific items measure:  An intolerance of weakness in others  A superior and overbearing attitude and manner  The existence of hostile attitudes and reactions to others PPI 2018 1/3/2019

33 Trait H: Interpretive Considerations
A high Hostile score suggests a great store of anger that may be expressed toward others directly or indirectly in the form of procrastination, stubbornness, impatience, complaining, etc. When a high Hostile score is accompanied by a high Dominant score, an individual expresses anger “extrapunitively,” or outwardly toward others When high Hostile scores are accompanied by high Nervous, Depressive, and Subjective scores (Anxiety Pattern), an individual tends to direct anger “intrapunitively,” or inward/upon him- or herself Low Hostile/Tolerant is measured by items reflecting: 1) deep respect for others, 2) freedom from racial & religious prejudice, 3) patient and lenient attitudes and 4) a disinclination to complain or criticize PPI 2018 1/3/2019

34 Trait I: Self-Disciplined vs. Impulsive
Self-disciplined is defined as controlled, methodical, and persevering Impulsive is defined as uncontrolled, disorganized, and changeable A high score on Self-disciplined indicates control over one’s emotions and behavior in general; it suggests respect for authority and conformity to group standards; it can be an indication of emotional maturity; the questions in this category relate to: The inclination to be deliberate and to set goals The ability to organize, plan, endure, and persevere Neatness, orderliness, a desire to keep things in place Thinking before acting and exercising good self-control PPI 2018 1/3/2019

35 Trait I: Interpretive Considerations
While a high Self-disciplined score indicates emotional maturity, a very high score suggests rigidity and a lack of flexibility/adaptability; an extremely high score suggests perfectionist tendencies and an inclination to make unrealistic demands of others and oneself A low score on Self-disciplined/Impulsive indicates poor self- control and, in some cases, a tendency to act without considering consequences When Self-discipline is lacking, it is difficult to control such habits as substance abuse, smoking, eating, gambling, or other self-destructive behavior Important Note: Impulsive individuals often find it difficult to persevere in counseling or therapy; thus, the prognosis for counseling is poor, unless the situation is critical, and the motivation, correspondingly strong. PPI 2018 1/3/2019

36 T-JTA Trait Patterns Seven Trait Patterns: Anxiety Withdrawal
Certain trait score combinations have meaning beyond the individual trait scores themselves; such groupings are called Trait Patterns and can be identified on a plotted shaded profile using the set of seven specific Trait Pattern Transparencies Trait patterns may be found in varying intensity—the most evident falling within the “Improvement needed” range of the T-JTA shaded profile (or the extreme ends of the sten range), and marginal examples falling within the “Improvement desirable” range Seven Trait Patterns: Anxiety Withdrawal Hostile-Dominant Dependent-Hostile Emotionally Repressed Emotionally Inhibited Socially Effective PPI 2018 1/3/2019

37 May be accompanied by a low Attitude Scale Score
Anxiety Pattern High Nervous/Composed High Depressive/Lighthearted High Subjective/Objective May be accompanied by a low Attitude Scale Score  Anxiety reactions can range from a mild sense of uneasiness or tension to more extreme states of apprehension or panic with probable somatic aspects  Anxiety is a natural aspect of growth and change and often results from fear of an actual danger; acute or chronic anxiety, however, resulting from more intangible conflicts or concerns, is associated with insecurity or feelings of inadequacy  In instances of extreme anxiety, more extensive evaluation, including psychotherapy, is recommended PPI 2018 1/3/2019

38 May be accompanied by a low Attitude Scale Score
Withdrawal Pattern Low Active-Social/Quiet Low Expressive-Responsive/Inhibited Low Dominant/Submissive High Subjective/Objective May be accompanied by a low Attitude Scale Score  This pattern describes a more introverted personality, or an individual who tends to be self-conscious, shy, restrained, and inhibited; it is evident in people who have feelings of inadequacy and low self-esteem  Some withdrawn individuals are receptive to help in increasing interpersonal involvement; others are resistant to change and prefer to be less socially active  When severe withdrawal affects everyday living, psychotherapy or psychiatric referral is necessary PPI 2018 1/3/2019

39 Hostile-Dominant Pattern
High Hostile/Tolerant High Dominant/Submissive  This combination of scores requires special attention, as it tends to be detrimental and may have a destructive effect on personal, marital, parental and other interpersonal relationships  People demonstrating this pattern generally alienate others as their confidence gives them justification for expressing their resentment and hostility  Already less likely to tolerate other points of view, an individual exhibiting this pattern who also scores high on Subjective will take stands and offer arguments too prejudiced or emotionally-biased to have much validity PPI 2018 1/3/2019

40 Dependent-Hostile Pattern
Low Dominant/Submissive High Hostile/Tolerant This combination of scores suggests that an individual depends on others for direction, but is prone to be antagonistic toward whomever he or she turns to for guidance or authority PPI 2018 1/3/2019

41 Emotionally Repressed Pattern
Low Sympathetic/Indifferent Low Expressive-Responsive/Inhibited This pattern describes a deeper form of emotional withdrawal (a suppression of feelings or emotional repression); possibly out of fear of rejection or defensiveness, the person does not allow feelings to either exist or find expression When an individual has not seen or experienced affection in childhood, he or she may find it difficult to be demonstrative in adult life The relationship between the Sympathetic and Expressive- Responsive traits is particularly important in premarital counseling because it is an indicator of compatibility with regard to affection PPI 2018 1/3/2019

42 Emotionally Inhibited (Blocked) Pattern
High Sympathetic/Indifferent Low Expressive-Responsive/Inhibited This combination indicates emotional blocking; it signifies an individual who has warm inner feelings, but who finds it difficult or is unable to share these feelings with others Important Note: In cases of marital conflict, there is often evidence of the Emotionally Repressed or Emotionally Inhibited patterns in one or both partners. These trait patterns can be either the cause or result of the problem, and can manifest in sexual incompatibility or dysfunction in one or both partners. PPI 2018 1/3/2019

43 Socially Effective Pattern
High Active-Social/Quiet High Expressive-Responsive/Inhibited High Sympathetic/Indifferent Low Hostile/Tolerant Individuals who fall into this pattern are likely to be open, outgoing, and successful in social situations This combination of scores signifies an individual who is not only sociable, but has a great capacity for inner-feeling and the ability to express warmth; this person is accepting and patient in attitude and behavior, suited to careers in personal or social occupations Individuals within the pattern but lacking in Active-Social may not seek group activity; they may relate well to others on a one-on-one basis PPI 2018 1/3/2019

44 Discussing T-JTA Results with the Counselee
Explaining the Meaning of Mid and Attitude scale scores: As indicators of the validity of test results, explanation of these scores “sets the stage” for the presentation of the trait scores. Mid Count – represents undecided responses - 30 or less overall (& no trait over 4) = questions answered with certainty, definite understanding - Above 30 (40 for adolescents) = indicates uncertainty or conflict, need for self-understanding Attitude Scale Score – represents frame of mind - Sten Score of 10, 9, 8 = denial of problems or faults - Sten Score of 4, 5, 6, 7 = objective and unbiased - Sten Score of 1, 2, 3 = overly negative or critical PPI 2018 1/3/2019

45 Discussing T-JTA Results with the Counselee, Cont.
Explaining the meaning of Trait Scores: As the profile is meant to be a “springboard” for discussion, it should be reviewed with the counselee. Emphasize that test results reflect what the counselee indicated about him- or herself, not your opinion! Consider individual histories when deciding manner and content of the discussion It is appropriate to begin with either (1) an overview of the test results, followed by a discussion of scores that need extra attention, or (2) a discussion of trait A, then Trait B, etc. Try to tailor the presentation to the special conflicts, circumstances, or dilemmas of the person or couple PPI 2018 1/3/2019

46 Discussing T-JTA Results with the Counselee, Cont.
Special Considerations when explaining positive and negative results: Caution and discretion should always be used in discussing scores, especially those in “Improvement needed” ranges. Consider the sensitivity and defensiveness of the individual; do not de-emphasize poor scores, rather interpret them in a non-threatening manner Avoid making judgmental comments and confine definitions to the statements printed on the profile Focus on scores in the “excellent” ranges in order to encourage self- confidence and to use as a balance when discussing poor scores; stress the potential for growth Remind counselees that everyone has some low scores PPI 2018 1/3/2019

47 Discussing Criss-Cross Results
When deciding which member of a couple or family to discuss results with first, it is suggested that you start with the individual who has the poorest results or the one who is more sensitive Profile order for premarital or marital discussions: If Woman Is First If Man Is First 1) Woman’s Self test 2) Man’s Self test 3) Couple Profile 4) Man’s test on Woman 5) Woman’s test on Man 1) Man’s Self test 2) Woman’s Self test 3) Couple Profile 4) Woman’s test on Man 5) Man’s test on Woman In this way, the couple benefits from seeing the total picture unfold – from self-perception to comparison of the two personalities to interpersonal perception PPI 2018 1/3/2019

48 Discussing Criss-Cross Results, Cont.
In a Family Situation:  It is preferable to discuss the results with the children first, and then with the parents  When a youngster asks you not to share his/her results with their parents, this request should be respected; however, you can suggest that sharing the results will help the parents to better understand the situation and needs involved  When dealing with a hostile or punitive parent, it may not be advisable to reveal the actual profile; instead, discuss the results in a modified, less specific manner  In general, it is most beneficial to show the complete Criss- Cross to both the children and the parents to clarify the relationship dynamics PPI 2018 1/3/2019

49 T-JTA Report Booklets The Report Booklet consists of eight pages and includes an introduction to the T-JTA, profiles, validity scales, and descriptions of the nine bipolar traits. PPI 2018 1/3/2019

50 Use of the T-JTA Report Booklet
Written in a non-threatening fashion, the Report Booklet is designed as a valuable and constructive means of sending information home with the client; it reinforces the information presented in the interpretation One Report Booklet is used per individual; counselors complete all information on the front with the standard color-coding (Red/Males, Blue/Females), marking traits that are “strengths” or “need attention” Booklets should not be sent home if the info could be threatening to the individual, or if it could be used punitively by another person PPI 2018 1/3/2019

51 Interpreting a Complete Criss-Cross Testing
In discussing a marital or premarital Criss-Cross, it is essential to emphasize that the results represent the individuals’ perception of him- or herself and that of their partner, not your own critical evaluation  The problems and specific complaints of the couple  Background info regarding the relationship—are the problems recent or long-established patterns?  The history of each individual When profiles are viewed in light of individual and mutual problems, the interpretation is more meaningful (Review T-JTA Manual pgs & T-JTA Handbook pgs ) Important Note: Test results must always be presented in light of the couple’s clinical history: PPI 2018 1/3/2019

52 Use of the T-JTA with Adolescents
Secondary Edition Questions  The T-JTA Secondary Edition was developed in response to requests from counselors for a simplified T-JTA question booklet with a direct-question format for use with adolescents The Secondary Edition essentially consists of the same questions as the Regular Edition, except that the vocabulary and format are simplified (complex or abstract words are eliminated for better comprehension) The Secondary Edition is recommended for use with ages and requires a minimum vocabulary and reading comprehension level of the 5th grade As there are no blank spaces for name insertion, the Secondary Edition is generally not used for Criss-Cross tests PPI 2018 1/3/2019

53 Use of the T-JTA with Adolescents, Cont.
 Because of the widespread use of the T-JTA with young people, many in school settings, a Student Sten Profile and a modified edition of the Secondary Sten Norms (Student Sten Norms) were developed in 1980  The SSP was designed to help educators and counselors working with sensitive adolescents; thus, only the “positive” traits are printed across the top, while traits with “negative” connotations are eliminated  Three shaded areas range from light to dark, or from above- average to average to below-average Student Sten Profile (SSP) & Student Sten Norms Important Note: Adolescent test results may be plotted on any of the T-JTA profiles, but regular Adolescent Norms cannot be applied if the results are to be plotted on the Student Sten Profile. PPI 2018 1/3/2019

54 Use of the T-JTA with Adolescents, Cont.
Special Interpretive Considerations  As adolescence is a time of change in terms of values and personality development, a vacillating self-image is common; therefore, T-JTA scores may be subject to a certain degree of fluctuation  Test results should always be viewed in light of Mid Counts and the Attitude Sten Score; Mid Counts above 40 tend to invalidate the findings  Acceptance and tact are essential as sensitivity is sometimes more pronounced in adolescents  It is important to stress that personality is an expression of feeling; it is constantly changing Important Note: The Attitude Scale Score is significantly lower for adolescents than for adults, possibly reflecting the self-doubt/negation common in adolescence. PPI 2018 1/3/2019

55 The T-JTA in Individual Counseling
The T-JTA can be used effectively as a diagnostic and counseling tool with adolescents and adults seeking assistance for personal adjustment problems; test results, coupled with clinical history, can provide an overall perspective including:  Confirmation of the counselor’s clinical impression  Diagnosis of problems and their personality antecedents  A means of broadening the individual’s understanding of the nature of his/her problems and the personality forces that create or perpetuate them  Specific areas for further study and clarification  In the case of retesting, any changes that have occurred during the counseling process PPI 2018 1/3/2019

56 Individual Counseling: Interpretive Considerations
Frequently, counselees seek help because of feelings of personal inadequacy  When an individual is self-critical or wants to impress the counselor with the seriousness of a situation, the Attitude Scale Score may be low; if the individual has a poor understanding of him- or herself or of the underlying nature of his or her problems, the Mid Count may be high, reflecting uncertainty  Poor self-image or deep concern about oneself is generally reflected by scores falling within the “Anxiety” pattern, accentuated by a low Dominant/Submissive score  When a counselee is motivated to take initiative in seeking help, T-JTA results can serve to reinforce that motivation PPI 2018 1/3/2019

57 Individual Counseling Interpretive Considerations, Cont.
Some individuals seek help because it was suggested by friends, family, or a doctor, and may not be strongly motivated  In this case, T-JTA results can be used to point out the value of continuing in counseling  Family members (i.e. husbands, wives, etc.) may be brought into the counseling process pending any clinical developments  Results can be tied in with clinical history to point out areas in need of study and change; once the problem has been clarified, a therapy plan can be developed PPI 2018 1/3/2019

58 Ethical Considerations
Copyright Regulations  T-JTA materials are copyrighted, and all rights reserved in all parts and accessories. No part of the T-JTA, including the manual, scoring stencils, question booklets, answer sheets, profiles, norm tables, handbook, and other accessories associated with the T-JTA, may be reproduced by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, programming, recording, or inclusion in any information storage and retrieval system, or used to print or otherwise produce computer-generated test results, without express written permission from the publisher, Psychological Publications, Inc. PPI 2018 1/3/2019

59 Ethical Considerations, Cont.
Referrals: When to Make Them  Important decisions should not be made on the basis of T-JTA results alone, without confirmation by other means, such as a clinical history, additional tests, and when indicated, more extensive psychological or psychiatric evaluation  If an individual’s clinical history contains evidence of a serious mental or emotional disturbance, psychological or psychiatric evaluation should be sought, regardless of what T-JTA results may seem to indicate PPI 2018 1/3/2019

60 Ethical Considerations, Cont.
Prohibited Uses  The T-JTA was designed for use only in face-to-face individual, pre-marital, marital, family, and pastoral counseling, and in educational and vocational counseling  It is prohibited to advertise the T-JTA to the general public or to sell test results for any unauthorized purpose  It is inappropriate to mail test results, or a written report of test results, in place of discussing such results in person; results can be fully understood only when an explanation is given in light of immediate circumstances PPI 2018 1/3/2019

61 Ethical Considerations, Cont.
Confidentiality All information relative to an individual’s test results must be considered privileged and kept strictly confidential; any violation of confidentiality is considered an invasion of one’s right to privacy  A counselor’s staff may participate in the preliminary scoring process, but the actual conversion of raw scores to percentile or sten scores must be done by the counselor alone  Test results received from PPI’s Scoring Service, marked “Confidential” on the envelope, should be handed directly to the counselor, unopened PPI 2018 1/3/2019

62 Ethical Considerations, Cont.
Confidentiality, Cont.  Under no circumstances should test findings be made available to anyone(i.e. family members, physicians or other professionals) without the express, written consent of the counselee  In a group counseling situation, a counselor may explain to the group, in general terms, the meaning and implications of the traits measured, but specific test results should not be disclosed  In military testing, findings should be available only to appropriate personnel trained in test usage and interpretation; T-JTA results must never become part of any individual’s permanent service record PPI 2018 1/3/2019

63 T-JTA Computer Scoring
Computer scoring provides enhanced accuracy and saves considerable time over handscoring; computer-generated results are available in three convenient options:  Computer Scoring Software (Counselor’s Kit #1)  Online Administration (Counselor’s Kit #2)  Mail-in/Fax-in Computer Scoring Service (Counselor’s Kit #3) PPI 2018 1/3/2019

64 Computer Scoring Supplemental Scales
In addition to the nine T-JTA personality traits, computer-generated reports (Brief and Interpretive) include a number of scales that cannot be produced by hand  Consistency: provides an additional measure of validity  Overall Adjustment: a measure of how effectively an individual interacts and copes with life’s circumstances  Emotional Stability: measures the accuracy with which one interprets the world and the extent of cognitive or cortical control over reactions  Self-esteem: indicates how an individual feels about him- or herself in comparison to others PPI 2018 1/3/2019

65 Computer Supplemental Scales, Cont.
 Outgoing/Gregarious: indicates primarily outward or primarily inward interests  Interpersonal Effectiveness: measures characteristics conducive to forming and maintaining close interpersonal relationships  Alienating: indicates the extent to which one turns hostilities and insecurities into behavior that others find objectionable  Industrious/Persevering: indicates initiative, tenacity of purpose and qualities of leadership  Persuasive/Influential: indicates a “people-centered,” outgoing individual who is convivial, energetic, forceful and convincing PPI 2018 1/3/2019

66 Criss-Cross Computer Reports
Score Similarity  Both Brief and Interpretive Reports examine whether a Self- test score is reasonably confirmed by the Criss-Cross on each of the nine traits; results that are similar suggest that the Criss-Cross respondent has a good understanding of his or her significant other  Scores that are dissimilar on Self and Criss-Cross tests reflect a difference in perception between partners, or a poor understanding on the part of the Criss-Cross respondent; to determine whether the Self or Criss-Cross results are more accurate, check the Attitude Scale Scores of each Score Dissimilarity PPI 2018 1/3/2019

67 Interpreting A Family Study
A Family Study consists of an interlocking series of tests in which various family members each take a Self test and a Criss-Cross test on another The results of a Family Study can serve as a measure of both personal and interpersonal adjustment, and the analysis of the study can clarify the dynamics of the family interaction, reinforcing personal observations or suggesting unstated areas of conflict It is recommended that the counselor first show each member of the family the profiles relating to that person to reduce anxiety about the findings Discretion and an awareness of the sensitivities of the family members, particularly the children, must be used to determine the appropriateness and manner of a group presentation PPI 2018 1/3/2019

68 Use of the T-JTA in Educational and Vocational Counseling
Although the T-JTA is not a vocational test, the results have important implications since an individual’s overall adjustment influences how he or she behaves or functions in school or work settings  The T-JTA can be used to consider whether poor performance or dissatisfaction with school or career is symptomatic of emotional or personal problems  While a T-JTA profile can suggest good adjustment and, therefore, potential for better performance, no school or job applicant should be denied admission or acceptance solely on the basis of T-JTA results PPI 2018 1/3/2019

69 Use of the T-JTA in Business and Industry
The T-JTA was not designed for use in employee evaluation, hiring, upgrading, or dismissal; however, it can be used for screening purposes by an appropriately trained professional, such as an Industrial Psychologist  If a respondent believes that job placement depends upon test outcome, he or she will likely be inclined to give socially desirable answers, in which case results are likely to be partially or wholly invalid  The T-JTA can be used effectively in companies that provide counseling services for employees for personal or emotional problems, and in management training programs PPI 2018 1/3/2019

70 Use of the T-JTA in Military Testing and Counseling Programs
The T-JTA is valuable in the early detection and preventive counseling of personnel experiencing anxiety and an inability to cope with stress “The AWOL Syndrome,” a research article based on the use of the T-JTA in the U.S. Army, revealed that scores in identified trait zones, in combinations of four or more, may indicate behavioral risks. This syndrome is now termed the “Stress Syndrome,” and is reported in T-JTA Brief and Interpretive Reports: The T-JTA Traits measured for the Stress Syndrome are: Trait A: Nervous  Trait B: Depressive  Trait C: Quiet  Trait D: Inhibited  Trait H: Hostile  Trait I: Impulsive  80% or above 20% or below PPI 2018 1/3/2019

71 Use of the T-JTA in Military Testing and Counseling Programs, Cont.
Subsequent counseling programs with significant results prompted the addition of another trait to this syndrome: Trait F: Subjective 80% or above Since the initial publication of the “AWOL Syndrome” in 1971, T-JTA testing and counseling programs have been implemented and are ongoing in all branches of the military For more information regarding the “AWOL Syndrome” and use of the T-JTA in the military (including suggestions for the implementation of Orientation Sessions), please see the T-JTA Handbook, page 81 and/or order the “AWOL Syndrome” article from PPI. PPI 2018 1/3/2019

72 Statistical Information
Reliability  Stability estimates were computed twice: first based on scores from a group of 81 subjects, then retested on a group of 50  Internal Consistency of the nine scales was estimated by split-half correlations and analysis of variance techniques Validity  Empirical Validity was determined by using professional, clinical ratings as substitutes for pure criterion measures  Construct Validity was estimated by correlating the T-JTA with other personality tests; the correlations can be cited as evidence that it measures the same general areas of behavior PPI 2018 1/3/2019

73 The T-JTA is published by…. Psychological Publications, Inc.
2205 First St., Ste. 110 Simi Valley, CA P.O. Box 3577 Thousand Oaks, CA Phone: (800) (805) Fax: (805) Secure Online Shopping Visit us on the web at to order with any major credit card! PPI 2018 1/3/2019

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