4 DI and CCSS pre-nups Know Mindset Ongoing assessments High quality connected curriculumTeaching upStudent interest, readiness and learning profileRespectful tasksCommon core shifts in mathCommon core shifts in literacy
5 UNDERSTANDThe basis for differentiation must be your knowledge of the standards that your students must achieve and of where each of them is with respect to those standards.Environment, curriculum, assessment, instruction and leadership create a classroom system of interdependent parts.Quality curriculum begins with a set of goals and objectives that represent the essence of the discipline students will studyQuality curriculum makes explicit the knowledge, understanding and skills that students should acquire during a segment of study in order to achieve the specified learning goals
6 Do Explain how CCSS calls for attention to student differences Recognize the ways differentiation supports the instructional shifts of the CCEngage in hands on DI activities that can be readily adapted and supported by CCSS
7 DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION The nature of the core is of an essential, irreducible set of knowledge and skills. The common core standards establish appropriate benchmarks for all students and provide a common framework to guide each state in helping all students succeed. The CCSS do not specify how the states will implement and use these standards. Overall there is an increased level of rigor expected when using the CCSS.At its most basic level, differentiating instruction means ‘shaking’ up what goes on in the classroom while allowing each student to learn at the depth, complexity and pace that is most beneficial. It is a rich, proactive and effective approach to providing for the needs of all students so that students have multiple options for taking in information, making sense of ideas, and expressing what they learn.
8 Guided by a growth mindset and a teacher’s response to learner’s needs General Principles of DifferentiationGuided by a growth mindset and a teacher’s response to learner’s needsTeachers can differentiate…Learning EnvironmentContentProcessProduct…according to students’…ReadinessInterestLearning Profile…using a range of strategies…Interest groupsRaftsCubingcontractstiered assignmentsThink-pair-shareGraphic organizers8
9 Differentiation is a PHILOSOPHY, not a “Bag of Tricks.” Guiding Principle:Differentiation is a PHILOSOPHY,not a “Bag of Tricks.”KRISTILens – how to better serve all studentsNot simply sending-out little activities
12 1.Non negotiables for effective implementation Quality DifferentiationCCSSBuild a student-teacher connectionPossess a growth mindsetBelieve every child is worthy of complex curriculum, and complex thoughtHave a growth mind set
13 Find an elbow partner and talk about how this might look in your classroom
14 Practical, school-friendly, growth- mind setting connection strategies Take photo’s of students as they are working on projectsAsk a nonparticipating student an open-ended questionRespond nonevaluatively at least 3 times per classMake mistakesSpecify daily learning objectivesWhat would you do if faced with similar situations? Begin with the end in mind That’s an intresting way of looking at things
15 more strategy ideas Acknowledge the benefits of ‘problem’ behavior Be curious togetherRefuse to be bias by standardized test scoresAsk students to share either academic or personal insights
16 2. Non negotiables for effective implementation Quality DifferentiationCCSSRouted in rich, meaningful curriculum.Differentiate to enable the largest possible number of students to succeedALWAYSTEACH UP!NEVERWATER DOWN!Common Core emphasizes engagement and understanding and requires ‘teaching up!’FEWER STANDARDSCLEARER STANDARDSHIGHER STANDARDS
17 Teaching up supports the mathematical shifts Common Core MathMind mapDeborah Riley
18 Teaching up supports the literacy shifts Determine the ways differentiation supports the instructional shifts in the common core.Discuss what it mean to challenge learners?Review requirements/non-negotiables for successfuldifferentiation of Common Core standards andlearning experiencesWhat will teachers need help in understanding and doing?What steps should we be commending in helping teachers learn to “teach up”?Common Core LiteracyMind mapDeborah Riley
19 K.U.D.’s are….. A road map to essential outcomes. The basis of engagementThe insurance policy for student understandingThe foundation for differentiation
20 K.U.D. On your way to the beach, you are driving through Traffic Ticket, USA. Suddenly, you realize that the local police officer is signaling to you to pull over and stop.When Officer U. R. Speeden approaches your car, you ask him, “What’s the problem, Officer?”What will Officer Speeden make certainyou know?KNOWThe speed limit in Traffic Ticket, USAThe speed at which your vehicle wastravelingThe procedures for paying speedingticketsK.U.D.Note to presenter: You may want to animate this slide so that the questions are not displayed until after the participants have had the opportunity to read the situation.Allow time for the participants to read the introduction. Ask them to share their responses to each of the three questions. You may want to list their responses on chart paper—label each section with Know, Understand and Do. Make certain you write each response in the correct format for that section: Know—an item in a list, Understand—a statement, and Do—an action that starts with an action verb.After the participants have shared their responses, recap KUD by showing Slide 3.KUD: Building a Quality Lesson--PowerPoint
21 Officer U. R. Speeden will make certain you…UNDERSTANDWhat will he make certain youunderstand?Speeding may cost you money, your license, or your life.DOWhat will he make certain you do?Demonstrate remorse for disobeying theposted speed limits.Pay the ticket.Note to presenter: You may want to hide this slide before you print the PowerPoint handout for the participants.Share these responses with the participants as a wrap-up to the activity.KUD: Building a Quality Lesson--PowerPoint
22 Planning a Focused Curriculum Means Clarity About What Students Should … KNOWFactsVocabularyDefinitionsBE ABLE TO DOProcessesSkillsUNDERSTANDPrinciples/ generalizationsBig ideas of the discipline
24 KNOW Parts of a plant Plants need: Root, stem, leaf, flower, seed Light, water, air, soil, food
25 UNDERSTAND:Plants have needs that must be met in order for them to survive.Each plant part has a job to do that helps the whole plant.If one plant can’t do its job, the whole plant suffers
26 Do: Identify and describe the plant parts Explain the role of each plant part in meeting the plant’s needsWork independentlyWork collaborativelyDraw Conclusions
27 Checking your KUD Know Understand Do Plant needs The names and functions of plant parts.Life cycle of a plantPlants have needs that must be met in order for them to grow and survive.Each plant part has a specific job that helps the plant. If one plant part can’t do it’s job, the whole plant suffers.A plant and its parts change as the plant grows.Identify and describe plant parts.Explain the role of each plant part.Explain what plants need.Carry out simple experiments.Record changes in the life cycle of a plant.ASCD Tools for High Quality Differentiated Instruction
28 PLANET SHOW AND TELLDirections: We have been studying the solar system. Choose the planet that most interest you and design one of the following products to show what you have learned.
29 Planet Show and Tell Know: Understand: Do: Facts about the planets Planets in our solar system have many characteristics in common, but they also differ greatly from one anotherDo:Compare another planet to Earth
30 Planet MI Task V/L Write a story about your planet L/M Make a chart that compares your planet to EarthM/RMake up a song about your planetB/KMake up or adapt a game about your planet (Saturn ring-toss, etc.)What type(s) of differentiationis this teacher attempting ?Beware of Twinky Curriculum(Engaging maybe, but pointless)
31 PLANET SHOW AND TELL V/L L/M M B/K Make up a story about your planet that shows the major ways in which it is similar to and differs from EarthMake a chart that compares your planet to Earth. Be sure the chart reveals both similarities and differencesMake up a song about your planet that shows the major ways in which it is similar to and differs from EarthMake up or adapt a game that would help your classmates discover the similarities and differences between your planet and Earth.
32 3. Non negotiables for effective implementation Quality DifferentiationCCSSIs guided by on-going assessments for planning and feedback…..NOT GRADES!Effective implementation requires effective use of formative assessment for instructional planning and to guide a students’ ability to contribute to their own growth and success
34 FRAYER ORGANIZER Description DEFINITION KEY WORDS EXAMPLES NON EXAMPLESTomlinson - 02
35 You can change the category titles to suit your instructional needs. Frayer DiagramsYou can change the category titles to suit your instructional needs.TOPIC or CONCEPTDEFINE ITGIVE IMPORTANCELIST EXAMPLESLIST NON-EXAMPLES
36 Pre-Assessing Using Graphic Organizers Define it…Give an example…Draw a pictureAsk a question about it…
37 “Tesselations” Pre-Assessment Name: Eric G. Define it…A prehistoric fishGive an example…Tesselations no longer live on earth.Give a non-example…I don’t knowAsk a question about it…Why are we studying tesselations in math?
38 Example of a Pre-Assessment Second Grade Rules and Laws Unit Pre-assessment directions:I will have students take out a sheet of paper and fold it so there are four sections. I will ask a question for them to answer in each section. Students will have the choice of writing their answers or drawing pictures to demonstrate their answers. The page will look as follows, and the questions are the questions I will ask:1. List three school rules and School rules help children. . .provide reasons for the rules.3. What rules should you follow How can you influencewhile riding in a car? rule- making as a child?
40 Exit Cards/Entry Cards Explain the difference between simile and metaphor.Give some examples of each as part of your explanation.
41 What does a quarter note look like? Exit/Entry CardsWhat does a quarter note look like?A half note?Whole note?
42 Entry/Exit CardsDraw and label the parts of a plant.Why does a plant have all of these parts?
43 Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about Jazz Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about Jazz. Write as much as you can.OriginsFamous ComposersOr PerformersJazzRhythmsPersonal Experience
44 4. Non negotiables for effective implementation Quality DifferentiationCCSSResults in a teacher planning based on student readiness, interest and learning profileStates that whatever students need to be successful, teachers will provide the pathway thus making teacher creativity and expertise in selecting appropriate strategies essential in helping each student succeed
45 useful instructional strategies: OPTIONS FOR DIFFERENTIATION OF INSTRUCTIONTo Differentiate Instruction By ReadinessTo Differentiate Instruction By InterestTo Differentiate Instruction by Learning Profileadd or remove scaffoldingvary difficulty level of text & supplementary materialsadjust task familiarityvary direct instruction by small groupadjust proximity of ideas to student experienceencourage application of broad concepts & principles to student interest areasgive choice of mode of expressing learninguse interest-based mentoring of adults or more expert-like peersgive choice of tasks and products (including student designed options)give broad access to varied materials & technologiescreate an environment with flexible learning spaces and optionsallow working alone or working with peersuse part-to-whole and whole-to-part approachesVary teacher mode of presentation (visual, auditory, kinesthetic, concrete, abstract)adjust for gender, culture, language differences.useful instructional strategies:- tiered activitiesTiered productscompactinglearning contractstiered tasks/alternative forms of assessmentinterest centersinterest groupsenrichment clustersgroup investigationchoice boardsMI optionsmulti-ability cooperative tasksMI options (Gardner)Triarchic options (Sternberg)CA Tomlinson, UVa ‘97
46 The “stuff” we teach (KUDs)—or how kids get access to the “stuff” ContentThe “stuff” we teach (KUDs)—or how kids get access to the “stuff”ProcessHow kids come to understand or make sense of or come to “own” the KUDsProductHow kids show what they’ve come to know, understand, & are able to doTomlinson 0846
47 to Differentiate Product Waysto Differentiate ProductChoices based on readiness, interest, and learning profileClear expectationsTimelinesAgreementsProduct GuidesRubricsEvaluationRAFTsMenus
48 to Differentiate Content Waysto Differentiate ContentReading Partners / Reading BuddiesRead/SummarizeRead/Question/AnswerVisual Organizer/SummarizerParallel Reading with Teacher PromptChoral Reading/Antiphonal ReadingFlip BooksSplit Journals (Double Entry – Triple Entry)Books on TapeHighlights on TapeDigests/ “Cliff Notes”Notetaking OrganizersVaried TextsVaried Supplementary MaterialsHighlighted TextsThink-Pair-Share/Preview-Midview-PostviewVaried HomeworkTomlinson – ‘00
49 TO DIFFERENTIATE PROCESS WAYSTO DIFFERENTIATE PROCESSFun & GamesRAFTsCubing, Think DotsChoices (Intelligences)CentersTiered lessonsContracts
50 A RAFT is…… an engaging, high level strategy that encourages writing across the curriculum… a way to encourage students to……assume a role…consider their audience…write/produce in a particular format…examine a topic from a relevant perspectiveAll of the above can serve as motivators by giving students choice, appealing to their interests and learning profiles, and adapting to student readiness levels.Carol Tomlinson
51 PLANT R.A.F.T. Role Audience Format Topic Plant part Picture Roots Plant needsPictureWe’re made for each other!RootsStem, leaf, flower & seedsLetterYou’d be lost without me!FlowersStem, leaf, seeds, & rootsAdI’m more than just a pretty face!SeedsFlower, leaf, stem, & rootsSong or poemHere’s where you got your startStemFlower, leaf, seeds & rootsChartWhy you can’t do without me!LeafStem, seeds, flowers, roots2 riddlesWhy I’m important to you!
52 Checking your KUD Know Understand Do Plant needs The names and functions of plant parts.Life cycle of a plantPlants have needs that must be met in order for them to grow and survive.Each plant part has a specific job that helps the plant. If one plant part can’t do it’s job, the whole plant suffers.A plant and its parts change as the plant grows.Identify and describe plant parts.Explain the role of each plant part.Explain what plants need.Carry out simple experiments.Record changes in the life cycle of a plant.ASCD Tools for High Quality Differentiated Instruction
53 READINESS DIFFERENTIATION: WRITING RAFT The teacher will assign sets of choices to students based on preassessed skill levels in sequencing and writing: Grade level or Advanced level. Within a skill level, students will still have some learning style or interest-based choices through the format options. Levels would NOT be seen by the students.Know: sequence; paceUnderstand: Seeing events in a logical order helps us better understand them.Do: Place items in order of occurrence; write with accuracy & completenessGTortoiseHare6-panel storyboardHow I won the raceYouteacherbulleted listThings I do in the morning to get ready for schoolSports starreporternews item“Here’s how I got injured ..., and what I’ll do next ...”ACousinyouset of directionsHelp me learn to play checkersHermione GrangerHarry Potterconversation or dialogueWhat happened to make you so suspicious of Snape?MarbleKid“Marble Raceway” model with exhibit card describing each tumble or turning pointWatch me roll!Sandra Page 2008
54 R.A.F.T. R. Story’s author R. Story’s main character Tier 1TTier 2Tier 3Write several s to possible readers telling them about an important thing that happened to you in the story.R. Story’s main characterA. ReadersF.T. Story’s main eventMake an outline to send to your publisher of your story’s plot.R. Story’s authorA. Story’s publisherF. OutlineT. Story’s plotYou write a weekly column I the newspaper where you review stories. Write a review of this story. Include strengths and weaknesses.R. Newspaper criticA. Newspaper readersF. ColumnT. Story
55 Math RAFT paper Know: Understand: Do: R. Point A. Teacher F. Letter T. Convince the teacher that you have an important function
56 Dear Mrs. Smith, I am Pete, the point Dear Mrs. Smith, I am Pete, the point. I am one point of an endless number of points in space. I want to ask you if you will teach your students about us points and explain how every single geometric figure is made up of us. It is very important to me because it seems that many people think of the point as a small part of geometry since we are so little. Though we are little, we are one of the most important factors in our world of geometry. Without me and all other points, there would be no geometric figures. We are their building blocks. Though all lines are drawn with one solid mark, in reality, a line is an endless set of points going in opposite directions. A sphere is a figure with all points at an equal distance from a center point like me. So please, tell your students all about us points. It troubles me when many think of us as unimportant specks in space. Please spread the reality of our importance to the students you teach. My partners and I would greatly appreciate it. Thank you, Pete
57 Differentiation by Interest Speech - Thanksgiving - RAFT ROLE AUDIENCE FORMAT TOPICTurkey The Axe Last words My last requestsHorn of Other table Introduction No one knows whatPlenty settings I doPilgrim’s Husband List of I’m preparing foodWife Complaints for how many?Axe Other tools Speech to Time to look sharp!in the shed InformCranberries Grocery shoppers Speech to I’m sweet – buy me!PersuadeStuffing Cook Begging You’re putting meWHERE?????
58 Consider this…You are a unit of measurement in math, an inch, foot or year. Think about what your job is. What items do you measure? How big are you? Where can you be found or used? Either alone, with a partner or in a small group,
59 Measurement RAFT ROLE AUDIENCE FORMAT TOPIC A unit of measurement in math: inch, foot, yard Classmates A Cinquain Poem Describe your job as a unit of measure
60 Sample rubric to accompany RAFT assignment Completed on TimeWriting/project appropriatefor the audienceFormat FollowedInformation accurateGrammar and mechanicsNeatnessCreativity
61 When Tiering: Adjust--- Level of Complexity Amount of Structure MaterialsTime/PaceNumber of StepsForm of ExpressionLevel of DependenceDr. Carol Tomlinson from the University of Virginia has developed an instrument called “The Equalizer” that can be used by teachers to consider different factors that can be adjusted to provide challenge and success.This overhead lists some of the areas that teachers should consider when making adjustments for students in different groups.61
62 Think of the tiers as…. Tier 1 Approaching the standard Tier 2 Ready for the StandardTier 3Moving onDEFINITIONThese students do not have the skills to be successful with the standard yet. We must scaffold for themThis is what the standard states for all students within your grade level/subjectThese students have shown mastery of the standard through preassessment. They need to challenged with more depth and complexitySTUDENT SAYS“I need help”“I’ve GOT it!”“I need more!”TEACHER’S ROLESpend more time hereSpend some time hereSome direction from teacher, mostly independent
63 What’s wrong with these tasks? Group One: Draw a picture of an acute angle.Group Two: Write a scene in which an equilateral triangle and an isosceles triangle argue over who is more “perfect.”Group Three: Make a list of all of the types of angles that you know.
64 COMPLEXITY Team 1 Team 2 Here’s the data: Here’s the data: 7% sales taxDance ticket: $2.50Pizza Place:beverage- $2.99pizza- $6.99split cost evenlyinclude taxMusic Place:CD- $15.00 (1/3 off)Include TaxTeam 2Here’s the data:6.5% sales taxDance ticket: $2.50Pizza Place:beverage- $2.99pizza- $6.99split cost evenlyinclude tax and tipMusic Place:CD- $15.00 (25% off)Include Tax
65 Tiered Character Maps Character name________ Character name___________ Why the author givesTHESE clues?Clues the authorgives us about thecharacterHow thecharacterlooksHow the characterthinks or actsThe author’s bottom line about thischaracterCharacter name____________Most important thing to knowabout the characterWhat the character reallyMEANS to say or doWhat the character says or doesWhat the character would mostly like us to know about him or her
66 LANGUAGE ARTS Standard: Tier 1Students create a product that shows the theme of a novel readTier 2:Students create a product that compares the theme in this novel with the theme in another novel.(Teacher may provide theme)Tier 3:Students examine how the theme of the novel developed over time in the story from the beginning through the middle to the end.
68 Mathematical math practices Make sense of problems and persevere in solving themReason abstractly and quantitatively3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of othersModel with mathematicsUse appropriate tools strategicallyAttend to precisionLook for and make use of structureLook for and express regularity in repeated reasoning
69 Building a Persuasive Paragraph 3rd GradeKNOW: Parts that come together to create a persuasive paragraphPurpose of a persuasive paragraphTopic sentence, elaboration, concluding statement, persuasive paragraphUNDERSTAND: The structure of text influences meaning.DO: Students will…1. Organize an individual paragraph with topic sentence, relevant elaboration, and a concluding sentence2. Analyze a paragraph to identify key components of a persuasive paragraphCommon Core: 3.W.1: Write opinion piece supporting a point of view with reasons.Beasley, 2012
70 Pre-Assessment Administered during previous week Writing prompt What do you think?Read the following prompt and let us know what you think about this issue. Write a paragraph that would help someone know what your point of view is about the decision.The school board met and decided that recess would no longer be needed in school. They felt that it would help students spend more time learning without being interrupted each day for recess. What do YOU think?Include a question about what interests them—in order to select topics that students are passionate about.Results:Group A– Writing indicated that they were comfortable with the organization of their argumentGroup B – Writing indicated that they struggled with organizing their argument
71 Steps in LessonReintroduce the pre-assessment topic and have the students Think-Pair-Share about their own opinion of the topic. Ask pairs to read the two sample paragraphs (both with the same opinion, but one is organized well, and another is not) and talk about which one they felt was more persuasive.Introduce to the whole group the vocabulary of organizing a paragraph (topic sentence, supporting details, elaboration, concluding sentence). As a class, go through each definition while all students highlight the example in the example paragraph with markers (Green – topic sentence, Blue- supporting details, Orange- elaborations, Red- concluding sentence).Beasley, 2012
72 Sample ParagraphThere are many reasons why we shouldn’t have recess during the school day. First of all, if we didn’t have recess, we would have more time to work on projects in school without being interrupted. Sometimes I am in the middle of something really, really important and then all of a sudden, we have to stop and I have to leave it behind. By not having recess, fewer students would get hurt. It seems that every time we are out on the playground, someone trips or falls and needs to go to the nurse. Finally, by not having recess, we might do better on tests. Everyone would have longer to study and we could all get A’s. So you see, if we didn’t have recess, it would be good for our school.Beasley, 2012
73 GroupsQuarter Pounder Group – Grab your boxes and meet at the left side tableBig Mac Group – Grab your boxes and meet at the right side tableBeasley, 2012
74 Quarter Pounder GroupPick up the Quarter Pounder boxes. With a partner, work on the jumbled paragraph inside your box. When you feel that it is organized, retrieve the answer key and check your work. Glue your corrected paragraph to your paper and turn in.Meet with teacher to talk about a model for persuasive paragraphs. Your teacher will give you a graphic organizer that will be used to organize your paragraph.Complete the following assignmentUsing the graphic organizer, choose one of the following topics and tell us what you think about…Whether chewing gum should be allowed in class, whether students should be allowed to bring toys to school, whether dogs make better pets than cats.Your task will be graded according to how well you demonstrate an understanding of the organization of a persuasive paragraph.Beasley, 2012
75 Sample of graphic organizer for Big Mac Group Beasley, 2012
76 Big Mac GroupPick up the Big Mac boxes. With a partner, work on the jumbled paragraph inside your box. When you feel that it is organized, raise your hands to have your teacher check your answer. Glue your corrected paragraph to your paper and turn in.Meet with teacher to talk about a model for persuasive paragraphs. Your teacher will give you a graphic organizer that will be used to organize your paragraph.Complete the following assignment:Using the graphic organizer, choose one of the following topics and tell us what you think about…Whether chewing gum should be allowed in class, whether students should be allowed to bring toys to school, whether dogs make better pets than cats.If you need a hint, go to retrieve an “extra topping” from our jars!Your task will be graded according to how well you demonstrate an understanding of the organization of a persuasive paragraph.Beasley, 2012
77 Sample of graphic organizer for Big Mac Group Beasley, 2012
78 5. Non negotiables for effective implementation Quality DifferentiationCCSSRequires teacher leadership and flexibility with regards to classroom managementEffective use requires an orderly, flexible classroom so students can debate ideas, make mistakes, and learn from those mistakes. Learning becomes real.
79 General Thoughts ... What am I really trying to accomplish with classroom managementor leadership?
81 Work from a Philosophy--& Share it with the Kids (Build it Together!) With regard to Planning for a Differentiated Classroom …………. Some Practical ConsiderationsWork from a Philosophy--& Share it with the Kids (Build it Together!)Give Thoughtful DirectionsEstablish RoutinesStay Aware, Stay OrganizedConsider “Home Base” SeatsEstablish Start-up and Wrap-up ProceduresTeach Students to Work for QualityDe-brief & troubleshoot with Kids,Make them PartnersTomlinson, The Differentiated Classroom
82 DeBono’s Six Thinking Hats R5.3,, 4.3,Compare/contrast, compare, W3-5.1, W ab
83 Six Thinking Hats What information is available? red hat white hat What information do we need?How are we going to get the missing information?red hatWhat aremy feelings right now?What does my intuition tell me?What is my gut reaction?black hatWhat are some possible problems?What difficulties could we encounter?What are points for caution?What are the risks?green hatWhat creative ideas do we have?What are the alternatives?How can we overcome the black hat difficulties?yellow hatWhat are the benefits?What are the positives?What are the values?Can this be made to work?Blue hatWhere should we start?What is the agenda?What are the objectives?Which hats should we use?How can we summarize?What should we do next?
84 Using your thinking cap, consider the following scenario Teachers using new methodologies should have a 30% pay raise.(Don’t worry if you agree or disagree with this statement)
85 Differentiation is a PHILOSOPHY, not a “Bag of Tricks.” Guiding Principle:Differentiation is a PHILOSOPHY,not a “Bag of Tricks.”KRISTILens – how to better serve all studentsNot simply sending-out little activities
86 Textbooks and a list of standards alone are NOT high quality curriculum! CCSC
87 To make a high quality curriculum, you must combine all ingredients in an appetizing way Only then can you get the right balance of ingredients to have a quality curriculum for all!