2 Let’s Review Independent and dependent clauses Sentence fragments Compound sentencesComplex sentencesTypes of phrases – appositive, prepositional, participial, absolute, infinitiveMisplaced modifiersSubject/verb agreementAdjectives and adverbs
3 Let’s Review Subjects and verbs – identifying and making them agree Sentences vs. sentence fragmentsFANBOYSMisplaced ModifiersCompound SentencesComplex sentencesDependent words that go with dependent clauses – because until since as ifParts of speechPrepositional phrasesConjunctionsCompound verbs and compound subjects
4 Let’s Review! Compound sentences (FANBOYS ;) Complex sentences Dependent/Independent ClausesPrepositional PhrasesAppositive PhrasesMisplaced ModifiersAnd/or ruleDashes and hyphensAdjectives and adverbs
5 Drill – Copy the following sentence in your notebook Drill – Copy the following sentence in your notebook. Look at the two underlined words. Which is the antecedent and which is the pronoun?Mary loved her new puppy.H.W. – Pronoun/Antecedent Agreement Handout
6 What is a Pronoun? Pronoun = word that takes the place of a noun Types of Pronouns:Personal - stand in for people, places, things, and ideas.A. he, she, they, it, we, their, your, his, her, itsB. They are my best friends.
7 Types of Pronouns2. Indefinite – refer to an unknown or undetermined person, place, or thing. A. anyone, someone, nobody, somebody, everyone, few, several, each, anything B. Someone left his wallet on the table. **There are other types of pronouns, but we are going to focus on these two for today.
8 So What??Today’s lesson is on pronoun/antecedent agreement for indefinite pronouns.HUH?????
9 What in the World is an Antecedent? What words do you see in ANTECEDENT?ANTE = beforeDo you see the word PRECEDE in there?Precede means COME BEFORE.
10 The Antecedent and the Pronoun The pronoun replaces the antecedent, so we don’t have to keep repeating the antecedent.Without pronoun to replace the antecedent:President Lincoln delivered President Lincoln’sGettysburg Address in 1863.With pronoun to replace the antecedent:President Lincoln delivered his Gettysburg Address in1863.
11 More ExamplesThe can of beans sits on its side. antecedent pronoun Mary and her mother went to the mall. They shopped. antecedent pronoun The principal shaved his head. antecedent pronoun
12 A World without Pronouns! Yikes! Once upon a time, there lived a girl named Bella. Bella had a dog named Scardey Cat, and Scaredy Cat ran away from hamsters, gerbils, snakes, the wind, the couch, the grill, the toilet, the air, the windows, the tissue paper… Bella had to keep Bella’s dog away from humans as well because Scaredy Cat might bite humans. One day, Bobby knocked on Bella’s door, and Bella answered. Bella couldn’t believe Bella’s eyes. Bobby had flowers in Bobby’s hands. Before Bobby could give Bella the bouquet, Scaredy Cat showed Scaredy Cat’s teeth and jumped on Bobby’s face. Bobby never came back to Bella’s house again. The end.
13 How Do I Know Which Pronoun to Choose? ** When you are replacing the antecedent with a pronoun, the two must agree in number and gender! Example: Bella answered Bella’s door. Which personal pronoun would you use to replace Bella? HER – singular and feminine Bella answered her door.
14 Your Pronoun ChoicesSingular – she, he, it, you, her, his, its, yours Plural – we, they, you, our, their, your ***You have to know whether the antecedent is singular or plural. ***You also have to know if it is a thing or a person! THAT’S EASY! BELLA IS SINGULAR! SCAREDY CAT IS SINGULAR! MARY AND HER MOTHER ARE PLURAL!
15 Now, for the Cool Stuff…**Remember the slide on indefinite pronouns. 2. Indefinite – refer to an unknown or undetermined person, place, or thing. A. anyone, someone, nobody, somebody, everyone, few, several, each, anything B. Someone left his wallet on the table.
16 What if the antecedent was an indefinite pronoun???? Someone left ________ wallet on the table. (Which pronoun should I use?)Antecedent Pronoun**Remember that the pronoun has to match the antecedent in gender and number!Is someone singular or plural? Is someone feminine or masculine?Someone is SINGULAR. Someone could be MASCULINE or FEMININE!SO…YOU WOULD SAY…Someone left his or her wallet on the table.Antecedent Pronoun
17 Are all Indefinite Pronouns SINGULAR? NO…BUT MOST OF THEM ARE! HINT: If the indefinite pronoun includes the word BODY or ONE, or THING, it is going to be singular. WHY???? EACH PERSON IS A BODY. ONE MEANS ONE PERSON.
18 Singular Indefinite Pronouns Correct Examples:Everyone should bring his or her tickets to the Farewell Ceremony.Does anyone have his or her homework?Incorrect Examples:Everyone should bring their tickets to the Farewell Ceremony.Does anyone have their homework?Why are these examples incorrect????Anyone, anybody, someone, somebody, everyone, everybody, everything, something, each, either, neither, one, nothing
19 Plural Indefinite Pronouns! Correct Examples:Both do a good job on their chores.Several showed up for their shifts.Incorrect Examples:Both do a good job on his or her chores.Several showed up for his or her shifts.Why are these examples incorrect?Several, few, both, many
20 Agreement! In life, what must agree? -Dosage of medication and patient -Measurements and construction of a houseIn sentences, what must agree?Subjects and verbsPronouns and antecedents
21 Ms. Lebowitz, remind me why I care! **We want to speak and write accurately. Otherwise, we might make embarrasing errors.
22 Mental Checklist A pronoun replaces a noun. 2 types of pronouns: personal and indefinitePersonal pronouns: he, his, she, her, it, its, youIndefinite pronouns: everybody, anyone, everyone, etc.Antecedent is the word being replaced (comes before the pronoun)Pronouns and antecedents must agree in number and gender (if a person)When an indefinite pronoun is the antecedent, you will usually use singular and both genders (his or her)Some indefinite pronouns are singular (body, one, thing)Some indefinite pronouns are pluralWords in sentences must agree