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Information from How Bad Are Bananas?

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Presentation on theme: "Information from How Bad Are Bananas?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Information from How Bad Are Bananas?
Carbon Footprints Information from How Bad Are Bananas? By Mike Berners-Lee

2 Carbon Footprint Best estimate of full climate change impact of something Carbon – Usually talking about CO2e (CO2-eq) not actually just carbon Footprint – Total impact

3 CO2e Total climate change impact of all greenhouse gasses caused by item or activity

4 Direct vs. indirect emissions
Direct emissions of an item Manufacturing process Transportation of item to retailer Indirect emissions Everything else Example: offices in the factory use paper clips made of steel that were mined and have their own carbon footprint

5 Context for numbers 1 gram of CO2e would be produced if you burned a pea sized blob of gasoline 1 Kilogram (2 lbs) of CO2e would be produced if you burned 2 cups of gasoline 1 Ton of CO2e would be produced if you burned 60 gallons of gasoline

6 Context for numbers The average American has a carbon footprint of 28 tons CO2e / year World GHG emissions are 34 Gt CO2e / year The global average carbon footprint is ~6 tons CO2e / year / person

7 Carbon footprint of items
A pint of beer Cycling a mile Manufacturing a car A web search Walking through the door A banana Spending 1$ Road trip (NY to Niagara falls) 10 lbs of trash Leaving the lights on Having a child A forest fire A Burger A bottle of water 2.5 acres of deforestation Using a cell phone A computer International flight (LA-Barcelona)

8 Which type of beer would have the highest carbon footprint per pint?
Locally brewed at the bar  Store bought, locally bottled Store bought, bottled elsewhere, imported long distances

9 Pint of beer Locally brewed at the bar Store bought, locally bottled
300g CO2e Store bought, locally bottled 500g CO2e Store bought, bottled elsewhere, imported long distances 900g CO2e

10 Which food would produce highest carbon footprint for cycling a mile?
Air-freighted asparagus Bacon Bananas

11 Cycling a mile Powered by bananas Powered by cereals with milk
65g CO2e Powered by cereals with milk  90g CO2e Powered by bacon  200g CO2e Powered by cheeseburgers  260g CO2e Powered by air-freighted asparagus 2,800g CO2e A hummer has a lower carbon footprint per mile

12 The carbon footprint of manufacturing a new car is ____ compared to the carbon footprint of driving that car over its lifetime Very small Roughly equivalent Very large

13 A new car Citroen C1, basic spec Ford Mondeo, medium spec
6 tons CO2e: Ford Mondeo, medium spec  17 tons CO2e: Land Rover Discovery, top of the range 35 tons CO2e: The CO2e emissions associated with producing the car are comparable to the CO2e emissions out of that car’s tailpipe over its lifetime

14 A web search Goggle estimates 0.2 g CO2e for the electricity it uses when you enter a search term 0.1g CO2e for 20 seconds of use from an efficient 20 watt laptop Local network and servers would use 0.1 g CO2e Maintenance on the whole system (replacing parts ect.) doubles the above figures Total = 0.8 g CO2e

15 A web search Desktop computers are more power Hungary ~150 watts
0.75 g CO2e for 20 seconds of use Increases in maintenance and network CO2e Total = 4.5 g CO2e Google accounts for just 0.2 g CO2e of that (4%)

16 A web search Searching the web non-stop for a year Does not include
5 tons CO2e Does not include Wearing clothes Keeping warm Burning calories Getting closer to your next need for medical attention Living in a building that needs maintenance Ect.

17 Walking through a door Automatic door
6.5 feet wide by 8 feet high Stays open for 18 seconds Power from electric motors to open door is 1 g CO2e If the temperature inside is equal to that outside then this is the entire carbon footprint If it's cold outside (say 20°f) then the footprint jumps to 84 g CO2e because of the energy required to heat that air

18 Bananas Bananas have very low carbon footprints compared to other foods Grown in natural sunlight (not in a heated greenhouse) They don’t spoil quickly So instead of shipping them by plane, you can ship them by boat (1% the carbon footprint of flying) No packaging Total = 80 g CO2e if shipped from across the world

19 Spending 1$ In our current energy system it is very difficult to spend a dollar without it adding to your carbon footprint

20 Spending $1 Exception would be spending on something that reduces net emissions Minus 220 kg (485 lbs) CO2e on a well executed rainforest preservation project Minus 2 kg (4.4 lbs) CO2e on solar panels

21 Spending $1 In the middle of the spectrum would be spending on groceries 620 g (1.37 lbs) CO2e per $1 Flying is among the worst activities for carbon emissions 10 kg (22 lbs) of CO2e per $1

22 Road trip San Francisco to LA and back (~800 miles)
Banana powered bike 53 kg (117 lbs) CO2e Bus 66 kg (146 lbs) CO2e Small efficient car 330 kg (728 lbs) CO2e Plane 500 kg (1,100 lbs) CO2e Large SUV 1,100 (2,530 lbs) CO2e

23 10 lbs of trash The average US citizen sends 1,250 lbs of garbage to landfills each year The average US citizen recycles 640 lbs of garbage each year Landfill emissions are produced when the garbage decomposes (methane) Sending metals, glass, plastics and paper to landfills (rather than recycling them) forces new materials to be produced for future products It takes much more energy to make a new product from raw materials than it does to make one from recycled materials

24 10 lbs of trash Garden waste Average trash contents
910 g (2 lbs) CO2e Average trash contents 3.1 kg (7 lbs) CO2e Aluminum and copper 41 kg (90 lbs) CO2e

25 Leaving the lights on Light on continuously for 1 year
Depends on where you are Iceland produces almost all of its electricity from fossil fuel free geothermal and hydroelectric power plants The US produces much more of its electricity from fossil fuels

26 Leaving the lights on Assuming US electricity generation
Low energy bulb 1 year 90 kg (198 lbs) CO2e 100-watt incandescent bulb 500 kg (1,100 lbs)

27 Having a child The decision to reproduce ends up being one of the biggest carbon choices people ever make Assuming that the child lives to 75 Assuming the child lives a nationally typical lifestyle Assuming that GHG emissions are reduced in the coming decades 700 tons CO2e 150 tons for a carbon conscious child 2,000 tons for high-impact child

28 A forest fire If you chose to start a forest fire
One of only decision you could make that has a larger carbon impact than having a child Your lifetime carbon footprint would increase by 1000s of times 2008 California forest fires 231 million tons CO2e A certain portion of the carbon releases will be taken back over time as the forest regrows

29 A bottle of water Most emissions come from packaging and transport
80 g CO2e just from the plastic

30 A bottle of water Locally sourced and using local distribution
110 g CO2e Traveling 600 miles by road 215 g CO2e Bottled water is 1000X more carbon intensive than tap water The world consumes 53 billion gallons of bottled water a year which accounts for 1/6th of a percent of TOTAL world GHG emissions

31 2.5 Acres of Deforestation
32 million acres of rainforest are cleared per year 17 percent of all human emissions Why? 35-45% Small farms 20-25% for cattle grazing 15-20% Intensive agriculture 10-15% logging ~5% other (urbanization, mining, roads, ect.)

32 2.5 Acres of Deforestation
2.5 acres = 1 Hectare 500 tons of CO2e Equivalent to driving the average car 28 times around the world

33 A Burger

34 The energy that you use to live and move around came from the sun
The energy that you use to live and move around came from the sun. Which is a more efficient way to transfer energy from the sun to you? : 1 and 2 are equal

35 A Burger Animal products tend to be more carbon intensive than vegetables and grains because animals consume a lot of energy just to keep themselves warm and move around Converting animal feed into meat and milk is inherently inefficient

36 A Burger In addition to being inefficient… Cows/sheep are ruminants
They belch out methane (CH4) Beef/lamb has double the carbon footprint (per kilogram of meet) of pork Excessive demand for meat provides an incentive for deforestation to provide more grazing land

37 A Burger Beef cheeseburger Veggie Burger
2.5 kg (5.5 lbs) CO2e Veggie Burger 1 kg (2.2 lbs) CO2e If you ate nothing but cheeseburgers for a year, your carbon footprint from food alone would be 4.6 tons CO2e

38 Using a cell phone Depends on how often you use it
Components of footprint Manufacturing of phone 16 kg (35 lbs) CO2e Power over 2 years 6 kg (13 lbs) CO2e Energy required to transmit calls across network 66 kg (146 lbs)

39 Using a cell phone 1 minute cell-to-cell phone call has the same carbon footprint as an apple =

40 Using a cell phone As of 2009 there were 2.7 billion cell phones in use (almost half the world) Cell phone calls account for about 125 million tons CO2e 1/4th of a percent of global emissions Texting is a much lower carbon option

41 Using a cell phone A year’s typical usage of just under 2 minutes per day 47 kg (103 lbs) CO2e A year’s usage of 1 hour per day 1,250 kg (2,760 lbs) CO2e

42 A Computer Machine itself Electricity consumption
inch iMac 720 kg (1,590 lbs) CO2e Electricity consumption 69 g (0.2 lbs) CO2e per hour Use of servers and networks 55 g (0.1 lbs) CO2e per hour Overall computing may be only a few % of your carbon footprint

43 A Computer (and using it)
Most of the manufacturing footprint comes from the microprocessor The electricity emissions typically equal the footprint of manufacture after 15,000 hours 9 hours every day for 5 years

44 An International Flight
Economy class 3.4 tons CO2e Average 4.6 tons CO2e First class 13.5 tons CO2e One trip is equivalent to 340,000 disposable plastic bags

45 An International Flight
First class tickets are particularly high in impact because the seat uses up more of the plane and by paying more money you provide more of a commercial incentive for the flight

46 An International Flight
When a 747 takes off about 1/3 of its weight is fuel As the fuel burns, it creates 3 times its weight in CO2

47 Carbon footprint ranking
Forest fire – 100 million tons CO2e Having a child – 700 tons CO2e 2.5 Acres deforestation – 500 tons CO2e A new car – 17 tons CO2e Flight (LA to Spain) – 4.6 tons CO2e A new computer – 720 kg CO2e Road trip: SF to LA – 500 Kg CO2e Light on for a year – 400 kg CO2e $100 on groceries – 62 kg CO2e Moderate cell phone use (year) – 47 kg CO2e 10 lbs of trash – 3.1 kg CO2e Beef cheeseburger – 2.5 kg CO2e A pint of beer – 500g CO2e Bottle of water – 200g CO2e Cycling a mile – 100g CO2e Banana – 80g CO2e Walking through a door – 10g CO2e A web search – 2g CO2e

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