Presentation on theme: "Applying practice to teaching. Identify and explain psychological factors which impact on performance (Unit 4) Motivation Arousal and Anxiety Confidence."— Presentation transcript:
Identify and explain psychological factors which impact on performance (Unit 4) Motivation Arousal and Anxiety Confidence Mental Imagery Concentration
Study Guide Assessment Outcome 2 Evaluate practices and/or strategies that are used in conjunction with each other to enhance performance On completion of this unit the student should be able to analyse and evaluate strategies designed to enhance performance or promote recovery.
Psychological Skills Training (PST) Skills Like physical skills Can be learned and ultimately lead to peak performance
Intensity and direction of effort Intrinsic and Extrinsic Task and Ego Orientation Measures: Intrinsic and Extrinsic motivation (Sport Motivation Scale, SMS) Task and Ego Orientation Questionnaire www.brianmac.co.uk/
"Excuse me, Sir," Alice inquires. "Could you tell me which road to take?' Wisely, the caterpillar asks, Where are you going?' Somewhat dismayed, Alice responds, "Oh, I don't know where I am going, Sir." Well," replied the caterpillar, "if you don't know where you are going, it really doesn't matter which road you take." (Alice in Wonderland - Lewis Carroll)
Develop a goal-setting sheet for your own sport Purpose: To develop long and short-term goals and a method of assessing goal achievement Instruction: Develop a sheet to record your goals Identify a long term-goal Identify several short-term goals leading to the long-term goal Identify goal attainment measures Make sure it conforms to the SMARTER guidelines Alternative: Develop a goal-setting sheet for your study in VCE PE
Arousal General physiological and psychological activation Anxiety A subjective feeling of apprehension and heightened physiological arousal Somatic Cognitive State and Trait Anxiety
Inverted- U Theory Performance Arousal Putting in GolfWeightliftingTackling in Football Low Skilled High Skilled Optimal Performance Zone
HR Questionnaires SCAT – Sport Competition Anxiety Test (Martens, 1977) CSAI2 – Competitive State Anxiety Inventory2 Cognitive, somatic, self-confidence
Relaxation Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR) Breathing Meditation (many scripts available online) Pumping Up Breathing Positive talk Music Pre-competitive workout
Monitoring Optimal Arousal Levels Purpose: To improve awareness of arousal/anxiety levels and find out optimal performance state Instruction: Monitor prior to several games (over several weeks) and relate to performance levels within the game: CSAI-2 or Own rating of arousal level (that students develop) Performance
In a group: Discuss the relationship between arousal and performance and factors that were found to influence arousal levels Discuss ways to manage arousal and anxiety (and maybe develop an appropriate strategy to enhance performance) Could be good to link in with physiological load – because other component of Area of Study is training load (recovery and overtraining) – and there is also nutrition aspects as well? Game Rating /10 1234 Arousal levels Performance Levels
Purpose: To improve awareness of arousal/anxiety levels and monitor changes in these Instruction: Monitor the some or all of the following the night before a game, the morning before, during the warm-up and post match: Heart rate Butterflies Muscle tension Breathing rate CSAI-2 Time-to-event paradigm Measure at periodic intervals, Normally 2 days, 24 h, 2 h and 1 h before competition (for a review, see Cerin et al., 2000) Anxiety Time to Event 2 days 1 day2 hours 1 hourCompetition Cognitive anxiety Somatic anxiety
Analyse the levels of arousal Different sports and activities within sports (e.g., kicking for goal versus tackling) Discussion (Whiteboard) Strategies that students use to manage their arousal levels (relax and pump up) or students interview one another about how they cope with anxiety in sport Measure your anxiety levels Complete an anxiety measure (e.g., SCAT and discuss anxiety levels) Complete a relaxation session and measure HR before and after Incorporate relaxation into practical class activities Create competitive and non-competitive physical activities Measure and monitor anxiety/arousal Incorporate some relaxation techniques
Belief about achieving success (can be a trait or a state) Underconfident Overconfident Just right Performance
Goal-setting Game Plans and Routines Imagery Self-talk Thought-Stopping Rationalisation Affirmations
Develop a list of negative Self-Talk statements and develop counterarguments Develop some positive affirmations Interview other members of class to find out what negative thoughts they have about performance
Imagery Using all the senses to create or re-create an experience in the mind (Mental Practice/Visualisation) Imagery Ability Vividness Controllability Measures Sport Imagery Questionnaire (SIQ) Sport Imagery Ability Measure (SIAM) Widely used at elite level Large number of uses
Effect of mental practice on performance Purpose: To investigate the effect of mental practice on performance Instructions: Complete 10 throws at a target (or kicks at goal or free-throws) Record your scores Mentally practice the skill for 5-10 minutes Complete another 10 throws (mentally practice just before each throw) Record your scores Compare scores for each condition Measure your imagery ability
Paying attention to the right thing at the right time
Asafa Powell 2007 World Championship Won by Tyson Gay Leaped out of the blocks and was ahead at the 60 mark But then I heard Tysons footsteps and I froze "I felt him coming on my shoulder and that's when I panicked" I just couldnt relax. I tied up and he shot past me for the win. Conditions Leading to Choking Important competition Critical plays in a competition Evaluation by coaches, peers, and parents Physical Changes Increased muscle tension Increased breathing rate Increased heart rate Attentional Changes Internal focus Narrow focus Reduced flexibility Performance Impairment Timing and coordination breakdown Muscle tightness and fatigue Rushing Inability to attend to task-relevant cues
Kicking routine crucial to Wilkinson's game "My stance has come from a physical and mental development where I've tried to learn relaxation techniques"
"Forget the posts - let's aim for something else. Imagine there's a woman sitting in that seat, 20 rows behind the goal, holding a can of Coke.." As Wilkinson prepares to kick, he visualises the flight of the ball ending up in Doris's lap, knocking the drink out of her hands. Catch this Doris Instead of aiming at the posts - aiming at something specific 30 yards back – it made me really kick through the ball."
Develop a pre-match routine including individual preferences to develop an optimal arousal state and concentration levels (coaches should allow players to follow their own routine outside of scheduled group sessions) Players generally prefer to stick to a consistent routine during the 24 hours prior to a game
Create a pre-shot routine for your sport Set up a goal-kicking/penalty- kick/free-throw scenario in class (competition) Get students to develop a pre- shot routine for their shot Test it out in class write up the results?
Brianmac www.brianmac.co.uk/ Mindtools www.psychwww.com/mtsite/ Mental toolbox http://www.usaswimming.org/ Australian Institute of Sport http://www.ausport.gov.au/ais/ Sports Psychology Arena http://www.sport-psychology-arena.com/
Weinberg, R., & Gould, D (2007). Foundations of sport and exercise psychology (4 th ed). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Williams, J.M. (Ed.) (2006). Applied sport psychology: personal growth to peak performance (5 th ed.). Mountain View, CA: Mayfield. Morris, T., & Summers, J. (Eds.). (2004). Sport psychology. Theory, applications and issues (2nd ed.). Brisbane, Qld; John Wiley & Sons. Morris, T., Spittle, M., & Watt, A.P. (2005). Imagery in sport. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.