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ESPE 425 Biomechanics Michael Boyle

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1 ESPE 425 Biomechanics Michael Boyle

2 Warning I am not a biomechanist
Please challenge me if I screw up terminology etc. My objective is to provide “real world” tie in.

3 Self Improvement Brian Tracey- Million Dollar Habits Read every day
Learn from experts- attend seminars, invest in yourself Listen to audiotapes- if you want to kill time, work it to death

4 Suggested Readings Motivational
Carnagie- “How to Win Friends and Influence People” Covey- “ Seven Habits of Highly Effective People” Tracey- “Million Dollar Habits” Professional Sahrmann- Diagnosis and Treatment of Movement Impairment Syndromes Meyers- Anatomy Trains McGill- Low Back Disorders Francis- Training for Speed Christian Thibeadeau- Black Book of Training Secrets, Theory and Application of Modern Strength and Power Methods

5 What Really is Functional Training?
Function is purpose. When we ask what an items “function” is , we want to know it’s purpose. Think of functional training as purposeful training. Functional training is literally training muscles based on their function! From a scientific perspective it is “the application of functional anatomy to training”

6 Movements, Not Muscle Groups
Forget bodypart divisions- chest and back etc. Think of movement action, not muscle group Learn basic anatomy Learn true functional anatomy, it will change the way you think.

If you don’t get this nothing else makes sense. If you didn’t pay attention, go back and study

8 The Basics Ligament- bone to bone, noncontractile, slow to heal, slow to adapt, Ligaments provide joint stability and proprioceptive input ( where the joint is in space) Made up of varying degrees of collagen ( tensile strength) and elastin (flexibility and recoil) Innervated by nervous system

9 Muscles Think of muscles as elastics or springs that connect bone to bone Muscles move or stabilize bones Unlike ligaments muscles have the ability to lengthen and shorten Tendon connects muscle to bone Tendons are the anchors for contraction and also have poor blood supply and heal slowly

10 Muscle Fiber Types Type 1- Slow Twitch, smaller, produce less force, more mitochondria, slower to fatigue Type 2- Fast twitch, opposite of above in all regards

11 Types of Muscle Contraction
Concentric- shortens Eccentric- lengthens Isometric- static, no change in length Curl example

12 Time Under Tension The length of a set =TUT
Set is a group of repetitions A rep is expressed by tempo Tempo is described by three numbers - Eccentric ( lengthen) - Pause ( isometric) - Concentric ( shorten) Time under tension is the time it takes to complete a set

13 Response Muscle response is a function of time under tension ( tempo-rep, TUT-set) For size ( hypertrophy) TUT must be sec For strength less than 1-20 sec.

14 Length Tension Length tension relationship
There is an optimum length at which a muscle can produce it’s greatest force. A muscle must be lengthened to be able to shorten effectively Max force is at normal length Hamstring example

15 Velocity Velocity is displacement/ time
Acceleration is change in velocity Sport is about acceleration not velocity Sprints measure acceleration, not speed 4.5 forty? Is that velocity? 40 yds in 4.5 sec. Velocity is 8,8 yds/sec Displacement is 40 yds

16 Force Velocity Curve Muscle has an inherent capacity to adjust force to match load. This is what separates it from simple elastic contractions. ( Edman in Komi p 105) Max load= minimal velocity-- (strength) Minimal Load= high velocity- (power) Training must be at various loads and speeds

17 Stretch Shortening Cycle
Finger Trick? Muscle has elasticity but, not “simple elasticity” SSC= the natural combination of eccentric lengthening progressing into concentric shortening Plyometrics are intended to facilitate this process ( incorporating Force Velocity)

18 What Are Plyometrics?

19 Eccentric to Concentric Switching
Plyometrics are designed to use the stretch shortening cycle to effect the force velocity curve. In other words, they teach you to move heavier loads faster.

20 Total Body Power

21 Core Power

22 Upper Body Power

23 Movement Classifications- Hip Ext
Agonist- prime mover ( Glute Max) Synergist- assist prime mover ( Hamstrings) Stabilizer- support or stabilize while the prime mover works ( Core) Neutralizer- counteract unwanted motion (Glute med, aqdductors)

24 Descriptive Anatomical Terms
Medial- toward the midline Lateral- away from the midline Contralateral- opposite side Ipsilateral- same side Distal- away from the center Proximal- nearer the center

25 Movement Descriptions
Adduction- toward the midline Adbuction- away from the midline Flexion- decreases a joint angle Extension- increases a joint angle Internal Rotation- rotates toward the midline External Rotation- rotates away from the midline

26 Planes of Motion 1- Frontal 2- Sagittal 3- Transverse

27 Three Planes of Motion Sagittal- divides into R+L halves, most conventional training occurs in the sagittal plane Frontal- divides the body into front and back halves, sidebending occurs in this plane Transverse- divides the body into top and bottom halves, rotation

28 Frontal

29 Sagittal

30 Transverse

31 Lateral Sub-System Muscles Function Gluteus Medius TFL
Adductor Complex Quadratus Lumborum Function Frontal Plane stabilization

32 Gluteus Medius The key to hip stability ( and hip stability is knee stability) The key to knee pain? Dysfunction at the hip manifests itself at the knee Rope analogy

33 Deep Longitudinal Sub-System
Muscles Peroneals Biceps Femoris Sacrotuberous Ligament Erector Spinae Function Force Transmission Force Production

34 Posterior Oblique Sub-System
Works synergistically w/ DLSS Muscles Latissimus Dorsi Gluteus Maximus Thoracolumbar Fascia Function Transverse plane stabilization to the LPHC (SI Joint)

35 Functional Anatomy Anterior

36 Abdominals Rectus abdominus
External oblique- outermost layer (external) creates pos. tilt/ prevents ant. tilt Internal oblique ( 2nd layer, has thoraco-lumbar insertion/ origin) responsible for flexion of upper half ( upper abs?) -Transverse abdominus( deepest layer, also has thoracolumbar insertion) antiflexion effect, nature’s weight belt

37 Functional Anatomy Trunk
Pelvic Floor

38 Functional Anatomy-Posterior
Deep Spinal Muscles Multifidus Rotatores-key rot. stab Interspinalis Intertransversarii

39 Functional Anatomy Trunk/ Hip
Iliopsoas Iliacus Psoas major Psoas minor ( can be weak and tight, Sahrmann isometrics)

40 Functional Anatomy-Hip
Iliacus Adductor Magnus Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Gracilis Pectineus Effects pelvic stability

41 Motor Learning Incompetent- you don’t know how to do something
Concious Incompetent- you have been taught but can’t yet execute Competent

42 Kinetic Chain Function
Pronation= flexion, eccentric deceleration, landing Supination= extension, acceleration, push-off

43 Muscle Actions Eccentric- lengthen, absorb, decelerate
Concentric- shorten, produce, accelerate Isometric- no motion, stabilize, transition

44 Eccentric to Concentric

45 Eccentric to Isometric

46 Gravity A constant downward directed force. Creates eccentric demand.
Consider gravity to be a constant obstacle to be overcome, “the enemy” in a way”. On earth, gravity equals weight Gravity is a problem, as is the acceleration due to gravity

47 Gravity Added

48 Newton’s First Law A body at rest remains at rest. Inertia
Why are linemen big? Heavy= Greater Inertia= Greater gravitational attraction to the earth Why is this a problem? Strength to BW ratio

49 Inertia Creates Problems

50 Evolution of Man Gravity can win the battle- work antigravity muscles

51 Measuring Gravity

52 Momentum Momentum = Mass X Velocity
“How big is it ( mass) times how fast it is moving ( velocity)= momentum Ex- Med Ball Throw and catch

53 Newton’s Second Law F=MA Force equals mass times acceleration
In strength training we often work on M not on A

54 F=MA

55 Newton’s Third Law For every action there is an an equal and opposite reaction This is the key to strength training. Increased strength yields increased ground reaction force

56 Strength

57 Power

58 Ground Reaction Force The effect of action- reaction on the body.
Every step you take is subject to gravity (how much you weigh) and momentum ( how fast you are moving). Ground reaction forces move up the chain and cause all our injury problems.

59 Examples Walking 1-1.5 x’s BW Running 2-5 x’s BW Jumping 4-11 x’s BW
In jumping 1 leg must with stand lbs ( 200 lb ex.)

60 Probably 11 x’s

61 The Evolution of Training
Initially we were: Strength Coaches Then we became: Strength and Conditioning Coaches Now we see ourselves as: Performance Enhancement/ Injury Reduction Specialists

62 The Evolution of Training
Training generally was done by copying other sports Track Bodybuilding Powerlifting ( actually strength?) Olympic Lifting

63 The Final Stage The interrelationship of all the previous areas with the fields of: Physical Therapy Athletic Training

64 Functional Training The connection of functional anatomy to training.
Training based on science not on history.

65 Gym Foolishness! Stairmaster w/ hands on Treadmill holding on
Machines for safety? Safe training for elders? No weight training for kids?

66 The Best Prescription Strength Training to improve posture and increase growth hormone output naturally Anaerobic training to train the heart. You need to progress to intervals

67 Strength Training to Improve Posture
1) TA and Multifidus work for lumbar curve 2) Scapulo-thoracic control for thoracic curve 3) Decrease pressing. Working the mirror muscles may actually speed up the postural distortion of old age by rounding the shoulders forward 4) Lower Body work to develop the glutes, another muscle that disappears with age

68 Keys Balance pushing and pulling. Make sure you chin and row.
Work standing. This is key. You must be able to function upright.

69 What is an Addanasstomy?
This is the key operation in personal training! This operation reverses the effects of gluteal amnesia My mission is to get glutes off of milk cartons and back into pants!

70 Gluteal Amnesia?

71 Interval Training and Anaerobic Training
Is it dangerous? Spinning is completely unregulated anaerobic interval training. How many spinning related deaths have you heard of? You need to develop an aerobic base in your fitness clients but, you must progress to intervals.

72 Progressing to Intervals?
Metabolic Testing? Estimated AT’s HR Monitors!

73 Stretching Not as useful without strengthening
Stretch what’s tight ( psoas, lateral hamstring, erectors) Strengthen what’s weak (( glutes (med and max), deep abdominals,

74 Squatting to 90?

75 Box Squats

76 Progressing to Standing
Standing exercise is the ideal but, how do we get there? The elderly enter long term care for one of two reasons. They can no longer stand from the toilet ( lack of leg strength) They can no longer wipe ( lack of trunk rotation)

77 Pilates Reformer

78 Total Gym

79 Single Leg Training This should be the longterm goal
This may not be realistic with elders but we can always hope.

80 1 Leg Pause Squats

81 Hip Extension Instability progressions
BOSU- unstable +elevated but not moving? Peanut- 1 plane of instability Stability Ball- multiplanar

82 Hip Extension Progression

83 Total Gym- Progressive Squatting, Pushing and Pulling

84 Progressive Push-ups- Finally a Good Use for a Machine


86 UnStable Surface Training- The Next Frontier
Core Board Applications Ball Pushup, Core Board Rotational 1 Leg Squat w/ Roller, Airex 1 Leg SLDL Inverted Row w/ Ball Stability Ball Complex

87 Unstable Ideas- Simple

88 Complex

89 Unstable Horizontal Press

90 Complex

91 21 Indispensable Qualities of a Leader- John C. Maxwell
“ Learn in your area of strength. Read 6-12 books a year on leadership or your field of specialization. Continuing to learn in an area where you are already an expert prevents you from becoming jaded and un-teachable.”

92 Thanks- TSI, Perform Better, Athletes’ Performance, Adidas, NES, Keiser

93 Upcoming Seminars Nov 5-6 Boston, Ma Go to


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