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SEHS Topic 5.1 : The Characteristic and classification of skill

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1 SEHS Topic 5.1 : The Characteristic and classification of skill

2 Define SKILL and describe the different types of skill
Skill – the consistent production of goal-oriented movements, which are learned and specific to the task. Types: Cognitive Perceptual Motor Perceptual Motor

3 Cont’d Cognitve – thinking; decision making
Some sports require both physical and cognitive skills (where knowledge of the rules is crucial)

4 Cont’d Perceptual Skill – include perceptual senses – vision, balance, tactile (haptic), auditory

5 Cont’d Motor Skill - emphasis on movement and not much emphasis on thinking

6 Cont’d Perceptual – motor skills : involve the interpretation of environmental stimuli and the motor response to this sensory information (most sports fall into this category since they involve thought interpretation and movement)

7 Outline the different approaches to classifying motor skills
There are five ways/approaches to classify ones skill set: (ALL ARE SET ON A CONTINUUM) 1. The distinctiveness of the movement involved Discrete motor skills Serial motor skills Continuous motor skills

8 Cont’d Discrete skills – have a clear start and finish (obvious when the movement starts and ends) Ex. Baseball swing, tennis serve Serial skills – the linking together of multiple skills to form a longer, more complex movement Ex. High jump, triple jump, competition diving Continuous skills – the end of one cycle of movement becomes the beginning of the next Ex. Swimming, running, cycling

9 Classifying skill cont’d
Open skills – are significantly affected by environmental conditions, so much so that the conditions dictate the pace of the movement NOTE: environmental conditions can be: weather, obstacles, boundaries, teammates and opponents Ex – football, triathlons, …etc (most team sports or individual outside sports) Closed skills- performed in more stable, predictable environments Ex. Archery, Shooting, Darts

10 Classifying skills cont’d
Size of the musculature involved: related to the precision of the movement Gross motor skills – involve large muscle groups Ex. Upper and lower extremities (running, jumping, kicking, swimming) Fine motor skills – involve much smaller muscle groups and fine movements (require high levels of hand-eye coordination) Ex. Darts, playing the violin,

11 Classification cont’d
External-Internal paced skills - This continuum is concerned with the timing of movements (often used with the open-closed continuum) Internally paced or self-paced skills: the performer controls the rate at which the skill is executed. These skills are usually closed skills. i.e. javelin throw, discus. Externally paced skills: the environment, which may include opponents, controls the rate of performing the skill. The performer must pay attention to external events in order to control his/her rate of movement. These skills involve reaction, and are usually open skills. i.e. in ball games the performer must time his actions with the actions of other players and the ball.

12 Classifying skill cont’d
Interaction continuum (Individual, coactive, interactive) Individual skills are those performed in isolation. e.g. high jump. Coactive skills are those performed at the same time as others but without direct confrontation. e.g. swimming. Interactive skills are those performed where other performers are directly involved. e.g. rugby, netball.

13 Outline: ABILITY Ability refers to talent, skill, or proficiency in a particular area. Realted to SKILL but not the same thing Where SKILLS are defined largely by their purpose, goal or objective and :. Req practice ABILITY are traits we are born with. Abilities give us the capacity to perform SKILL

14 Distinguish between Edwin Fleishman’s (1972)
Perceptual Motor Physical Proficiency Abilities and Abilities Physical proficiency abilities (flexibilty, strength, gross coordination, stamina) are typical exercise physiology features P-M Abilities – (reaction time, manual dexterity, posture discrimination, wrist/finger speed) combine how we percieve our environment and act accordingly in it

15 Define: Technique Technique – is the “way of doing” or the “way in which a particular skill is performed” “He/She has great technique” Ex. Executing a down-block in football, QB throwing a ball, Basketball player shooting a free throw or jump shot, A swimmers arm positioning on a particular stroke (butterfly, breast, freestyle)

16 State the relationship between Skill, Abilty and Technique

17 Discuss the difference between a skilled and novice performer
Make a table and write a 2 paragraph response to this syllabus component. You may use page 113 in the text as assistance but must research more than that in order to get full credit. Whatever sources you do consult and use (including the text) must be in your literature cited section following your two paragraphs

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