Should performance enhancing drugs be banned? Regarding Sports, Doctors Opinions Vary Performance enhancing Drugs affect the individual athletes integrity because using banned substances is a dishonest behavior and corrupts a victory.- Thomas Murray Legalizing drugs in sports may be fairer and safer than banning them -Julian Savulescu
Can Drugs and Sport Coexist? Performance enhancing drugs are not a new phenomenon; athletes in the original Greek Olympics are believed to have used mushrooms and herbs to make them stronger and faster. However, todays enhancement drugs are far more potent than histories milder form of stimulants.
Types of enhancers Anabolic androgenic steroids - synthesized from the hormone testosterone is often used to repair damaged tissue but because these steroids build muscle mass athletes such as weight lifters tend to use them in high doses. Amphetamines serve a different purpose; they give athletes, particularly football players a high level of alertness, energy and aggressiveness. Blood doping- the purpose is to give the athlete maximized use of oxygen from injecting stored RBC, also called erythropoietin (EPO) also prescribed to treat anemia in cancer patients. (endurance athletes).
Types of enhancers Anabolic agents hormones anti-estrogen diuretics blood doping chemical and physical manipulation gene doping.
Banning Drugs In America we believe in the principle of self improvement, the more exaggerated, the better. The pursuit of personal betterment is an American ideal. - The blind pursuit of perfection by Richard Hoffer (December 13, 2004; Sports illustrated pg. 52) ATHLETES VS. PERFECTION
Mark McGwire Broke-the record for the most home runs in a season (70) back in 1998 by surpassing Roger Marris who held that record in 1961 with 61. Its been reported by former teammate Jose Conseco that McGwire used steroids as far back as 1988, when he first discussed them with McGwire… -Juice and Truth by Tom Verducci (February 21, 2005; Sports Illustrated; p. 41)
Health Effects Many athletes-- young and healthy for the most part--would do significant damage to their long-term health. - Doping in Sport: Challenges for Medicine. Science and Ethics by Thomas H. Murray (From Journal of international Medicine, Vol. 262, no. 2, August 2008, pp 95-97) Because our body is a temple of God, Is this morally right to do to ourselves?
Anti-Doping Stopping Genetic Manipulation Gene therapy-- treats patients by inserting synthetic genes, called trans-genes, into their bodies. This works by handing genes off a virus that carries it into the cells. - Sports genes by David Epstein (May 17, 2010; sports illustrated: p 57)
Consider This... How do we determine which substances should be banned from athletics?
Legalizing Drugs The Goal of Cleaning Up Sports May be Unattainable!! 1st ban was in 1928 1976 East Germany and Athens
olympic games Penalty for cheating is small and the payoff for winning is big Welfare of athlete
Free Agency If there is no excessive risk, allow drugs if it can enhance performance Performance enhancement is the spirit of Sports Classical Musicians
Physical Risks Anabolic Steroids: Gynecomasta: an enlargement of the breasts in males Priapism: persistent and painful penile erections Enlargement of Prostate Severe Acne, particularly on shoulders and back Increased facial hair, reversed with severe balding Liver tumors Aggressive behaviors and mood swings
Steroid effects Reported side effects of anabolic steroids in 10 women: EffectNumber Reporting The EffectReversible After End Of Use Lower voice10No Increased facial hair9No Enlarged clitoris8No Increased aggressiveness8Yes Increased appetite8Unknown Decreased body fat8Unknown Diminished or stopped menstruation7Yes Increased sexual drive6Yes Increased acne6Yes Decreased breast size5Unknown Increased body hair5No Increased loss of scalp hair2No
Athletes mindset Scenario 1: From a 1995 poll of 198 sprinters, swimmers, powerlifters and other Olympians, this question was asked: You are offered a banned performance- enhancing substance with two Guarantees: 1) You will not be caught. 2) You will win. Would you take the Substance? Response: 195 athletes said Yes; 3 said No
Athletes mindset Scenario 2: the athletes were then asked: You are offered a banned performance enhancing substance that comes with two guarantees; 1) You will not be caught, 2) You will win every competition you enter for the next 5 years, and then you will die from the side effects of the substance. Would you take it? More than half of the athletes said Yes
What can be done? Stricter Testing - test year round, give no notice More Advanced Testing -takes time Keep Records / Retest - started doing this Stricter penalties - currently a 2 year suspension Legalize it
Questions What are the Ethical vs. Medical solutions? What is the line between good nutrition and use of drugs for enhancement? What are the physical risks involved for athletes who take drugs? Because the goal of cleaning up sports is unattainable, should we allow drugs?
Sources Levine. Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Bioethical Issues Sports Illustrated Drug and Substance Abuse Book, Dr. Lindsey Myostatin exon skipping shows promise for a wide range of muscle condition; ; November 2, 2010)http://nextbigfuture.com/2010/11/myostatin-exon- skipping-shows-promise.html