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Control Confidence Goal Setting, Imagery, self talk

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1 Control Confidence Goal Setting, Imagery, self talk
Sport Scotland CPD Control Confidence Goal Setting, Imagery, self talk

2 What emotions are most often displayed by:
Control What emotions are most often displayed by: Athletes? Coaches? Significant others?

3 Emotions Can impact on performance
Consideration of two aspects – coach and athlete displays of emotion Coach: Do you consider how your own emotions show around your athletes? Do you have any dominant emotions that you express?

4 Athlete Emotions Anxiety a common and debilitative emotion
Linked with increases in physiological arousal Athletes need to be able to control arousal: Increasing arousal (i.e., psyching up) Decreasing (i.e., increased pressure leading to anxiety and nervousness)

5 Coping – Social Support
Support from others can help athletes cope in sport Social support has 4 dimensions: Emotional support - being there for comfort and security Esteem support – bolstering person’s sense of competence of self-belief Informational support – providing advice or guidance Tangible support – concrete instrumental assistance Matching support type to needs of athlete at that time important Important that support does not undermine autonomy, competence and relatedness!

6 Pep Talks Guidelines for a coach’s successful pregame talk
Give them a plan. Make them believe they can win. Do not lie. Be yourself. Use humor.

7 “Getting the Butterflies to Fly in Formation”
Is arousal/anxiety debilitative or facilitative? Helping athletes understand arousal and its impact is important Regular reviews of performances Controlling strategies: Relaxation techniques (e.g., progressive muscle relaxation) Imagery Self talk

8 What Is Coping? Coping is a process of constantly changing cognitive and behavioral efforts to manage specific external and/or internal demands or conflicts appraised as taxing or exceeding one’s resources (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). Researchers differentiate between two types of coping: Problem-focused and emotion focused coping.

9 Coping Categories Problem-focused coping: Efforts to alter or manage the problems that are causing stress (e.g., time management, problem solving) Emotion-focused coping: Regulating the emotional responses to the problem that causes the stress (e.g., through relaxation, mediation). (continued)

10 Coping Categories Major problem-focused categories
Information gathering Precompetition and competition plans Goal setting Time management skills Problem solving (continued)

11 Coping Categories Major problem-focused categories Increasing effort
Self-talk Adhering to injury rehabilitation program (continued)

12 Coping Categories Major emotion-focused categories Meditation
Relaxation Wishful thinking Reappraisal Self-blame, mental and behavioral withdrawal Cognitive efforts to change the meaning (but not the actual problem or environment) of the situation

13 Coping in Sport Coping strategies frequently used by athletes
Task focus Rational thinking and self-talk Positive focus and orientation Social support Mental preparation and anxiety management Time management Training hard and smart

14 Resiliency: Bouncing Back from Adversity
Mental toughness and personal resources (e.g., determination, competitiveness, commitment) are keys for resilient performers to cope with adversity. Sociocultural influences such as social support (or lack of it) were seen as critical to being resilient. 14

15 Coping in Sport Gender, age, and pubertal status can influence both the type of coping strategy employed and its perceived effectiveness. Coping appears to be situation specific. There are great individual differences in coping strategies, and each athlete has to find what works best for him or her in specific situations.

16 Beyond Anxiety: Coping with Emotions
Self-statement modification: Change negative to positive statements. Imagery: Cope with negative emotions or use positive emotions. (continued)

17 Beyond Anxiety: Coping with Emotions
Socratic dialogue Thought-provoking questions are asked so athletes can reevaluate their self-defeating thoughts. Corrective experiences Athlete makes a conscious decision to engage in the behavior that is of concern, which can reduce anxiety and correct past mistakes. (continued)

18 Beyond Anxiety: Coping with Emotions
Vicarious learning: Modeling appropriate behaviors makes it more likely that behavior will be produced. Self-analysis: Monitor emotions in sport and thus increase self-awareness.

19 Beyond Anxiety: Coping with Emotions
Storytelling, metaphors, and poetry: Literary techniques encourage athletes to consider alternative ways of viewing and dealing with the situation (e.g., quotes or stories from sport stars). Reframing: Perspective taking involves viewing an important competition as just another game.

20 Keys to Generalizing Coping Strategies
Recognition of stimulus generality: Understand that certain coping skills transfer to other life situations. Broad application of coping skills: Some skills are likely to generalize to non-sport situations, such as stress inoculation training and progressive relaxation. (continued)

21 Keys to Generalizing Coping Strategies
Personal significance of coping application: Coping skills that are important to an individual will typically transfer to other situations. Internal locus of control of coping skill: Coping skills become more transferable when an athlete claims ownership of the skill. Learned resourcefulness: Resourceful individuals realize that coping skills can apply to different aspects of life.

22 On-Site Relaxation Tips
Smile when you feel tension coming on. Have fun—enjoy the situation. Set up stressful situations in practice. Slow down; take your time. Stay focused on the present. Come prepared with a good game plan.

23 Signs of Underarousal Moving slowly, not getting set
Mind wandering, being easily distracted Lack of concern about how one will perform Lack of anticipation or enthusiasm Heavy feeling in legs, no bounce

24 Arousal-Inducing Techniques
The goal is to get athletes at an optimal level of arousal. Often things such as pep talks and motivational speeches can over-arouse athletes. If arousal is to be raised, it should be done in a deliberate fashion with awareness of optimal arousal states. (continued)

25 Arousal-Inducing Techniques (continued)
Increase breathing rate. Act energized. Use mood words and positive statements. Listen to music. Use energizing imagery. Complete a pre-competition workout.

26 “Flow” When experience is just right, athlete can have psychological experience which both results in high performance and personal ecstasy. 9 defining characteristics of flow: Challenge/skill balance Merging of action and awareness (sense of automaticity and spontaneity) Goals are clearly defined Clear, unambiguous feedback Total concentration on the skill being performed Sense of being in control without trying to be in control Loss of self-awareness Loss of time awareness Autotelic experience (end result of all the above)

27 “Flow” Facilitative of flow: Debilitative of flow:
Development of positive mental attitude Positive precompetitive affect Positive competitive affect Maintaining appropriate attentional focus Physical readiness Unity with team mates and/or coach Debilitative of flow: Experience physical problems and mistakes Inability to maintain appropriate attentional focus Negative mental attitude Lack of audience response

28 What does a confident person look like?
Confidence What does a confident person look like? List these on the flip chart and refer to later during ‘sources of sport confidence’

29 Confidence Self-confidence definition: State-like and trait-like
“the belief that you can successfully perform a desired behaviour” (Wienberg & Gould, 2011) State-like and trait-like Confidence can change depending on the proximity to certain events Some people more predisposed to confidence Self-fulfilling prophecy If you think something will go wrong it will Example of overcoming this – Roger Bannister breaking the 4 minute mile

30 Sources of Confidence Different types of sport-confidence:
Confidence about ability to execute physical skills Confidence about one’s ability to use psychological skills Confidence to use perceptual skills (e.g. Decision making) Confidence in one’s level of physical fitness Confidence in one’s learning potential Where does this confidence come from?

31 Where Does My Confidence Come From?
Type of Confidence Sources Fitness Training (improvements) Warm up and cool down routines Proper Equipment Appropriate Rest Technique Training Coach feedback Previous performances Equipment Recommendations – coaches and other athletes Improvements in performance Comfort

32 How Would I Rate My Confidence, and Why?
Type Sources Rating (1-10) Reasons Fitness Training (improvements) Warm up and cool down routines Proper Equipment Appropriate Rest 6 Recent injury No set routines during training Not enough training Technique Training Coach feedback Previous performances 7 Performances improving Positive feedback from coach Always room for improvement Equipment Recommendations – coaches and other athletes Improvements in performance Comfort 9 Improvements in performance since changing equipment Recommended by coach and colleagues Equipment feels great to run in!

33 What Can I Do To Improve My Confidence?
Type Sources Rating (1-10) Reasons What Can I Do? Fitness Training (improvements) Warm up and cool down routines Proper Equipment Appropriate Rest 6 Recent injury No set routines during training Not enough training See Physiotherapist about injury Plan routines for warming up and cooling down, and use in training Set training plan for coming months (goal setting) Technique Training Coach feedback Previous performances 7 Performances improving Positive feedback from coach Always room for improvement Increased training Get more coach feedback – ask more questions Review previous performances Equipment Recommendations – coaches and other athletes Improvements in performance Comfort 9 Improvements in performance since changing equipment Recommended by coach and colleagues Equipment feels great to run in! Maintain equipment as best as possible Continue enjoying equipment Keep up to date with possible new equipment

34 Self-Efficacy (Bandura, 1977)
Situation-specific form of self-confidence Belief in one’s ability to perform a specific task Underlying assumptions If someone has required ability and sufficient motivation, defining aspect of performance is self-efficacy High self effacious athletes tend to persevere, particularly under tough conditions Self-efficacy is task-specific, but can generalise to other similar skills or situations Self-efficacy is linked to goal setting – those who have high self efficacy tend to set more challenging goals

35 Sources of Self Efficacy
Athletic Performance Efficacy Expectations Performance Accomplishments Vicarious Experience Verbal Persuasion Imaginal Experiences Physiological States Emotional States Physiological states – influence self efficacy when seen as either facilitative or debilitative Emotional states – emotions (e.g., depression, anxiety) can influence efficacy feelings

36 Psychological Skills

37 “A goal set properly is halfway reached” Abraham Lincoln
Goal Setting “A goal set properly is halfway reached” Abraham Lincoln

38 Goal Setting “...success and failure are not concrete events, they are psychological states consequent on perception of reaching or not reaching goals...” (Maehr & Nichols, 1980)

39 Goal Setting In your groups: Define goal setting and goals
List 5 different goals for the next year that your athletes have set

40 What are goals? “What and individual is trying to accomplish”
“ The object or aim of an action” Goals motivate individuals to take action by: Focussing attention Increasing effort and intensity Prompting development of new problem solving strategies Encouraging persistence in the face of failure

41 What is goal setting? Theory of motivation that energises athletes to become more productive and effective

42 Objective vs. Subjective Goals
Objective goals: Focus on achieving something within a certain time E.g., reaching a certain weight in a certain amount of time Subjective goals: General statements of intent E.g., “I want to do well”

43 I want to win this tennis match
I will keep my arms straight during my handstand I want to run this 100m sprint in 12.9s I want to make this hole in 3 shots I want to beat this boxer I want to keep my elbow high through the stroke I want to score a hatrick I want the club to follow through after the shot I want to win this marathon Outcome – 1, 5, 9 Performance – 3,4,7 Process – 2, 6, 8

44 3 Types of Objective Goals (Kingston & Hardy, 1997)
Outcome goals Focus on outcome of events Usually involve comparisons with others Performance goals End product of performance Independent of others Process goals Specific behaviours exhibited during performance Skill and technique related

45 Which Goal Type is Better?
Outcome goals: May increase motivation away from competition Can increase anxiety just before, or during, competition Performance and process goals Easier to adjust than outcome goals Depend less on performance of others

46 Multiple Goal Strategy
Focus on winning Outcome Goals: Focus on skill achievement Performance Goals: Focus on skill technique Process Goals:

47 Why Does Goal Setting Work?
Four basic ways goal setting influences performance (Locke et al, 1981) Directed attention Focuses athlete attention on task Effort mobilisation Once attention is directed, athlete knows where to place their effort Persistence Goal setting helps athletes direct their effort over long periods of time Development of new learning strategies Setting new goals allows athlete to develop new methods of achieving these

48 Effective Goal Setting
Make goals specific and measurable Set moderately difficult, but realistic, goals Set long and short term goals Write down goals and monitor progress regularly

49 Effective Goal Setting
Use a mix of process, performance and outcome goals Use short-range goals to achieve long-range goals Set practice as well as competition goals Make sure goals are internalised

50 SMART goals Specific Measurable Action-orientated Realistic Timely

51 SMARTER Goals Specific Measurable Action-orientated Realistic Timely
Elastic Repeatable

52 Goal Setting Pitfalls Poorly written goal statements
i.e., not using SMART goals Failure to develop a goal-attainment strategy Failure to follow goal-attainment strategy Setting too many goals too soon Failure to adjust goals Due to injury especially

53 Usefulness of Goal Setting
Motivation: Athlete given ownership over training – AUTONOMY Athlete achieves goals – COMPETENCE Athlete sets goals with team mates/coach – RELATEDNESS Confidence: Athlete achieves goals – performance accomplishment Flow Clear goals – facilitative of flow Control & concentration Ability to refocus on task – coping mechanism

54 Imagery

55 Imagery What is imagery?
Image can be created in the mind in the absence of any external stimuli Imagery involves one or all of the senses: visual, kinesthetic, auditory, tactile, olfactory Imagery involves moods and emotions

56 Why does imagery work? Psycho neuromuscular Theory
Imagery results in subliminal neuromuscular patterns identical to patterns used during actual movement Neuromuscular system “practices” movement Research has shown increased electrical activity in passive muscles associated with imagery (Jowdy & Harris, 1990; Slade et al, 2002; Smith & Collins, 2004) Most plausible explanation of why imagery facilitates physical performance and learning (Cox, 2007)

57 Why does imagery work? Symbolic learning theory:
Imagery works because the individual plans their actions in advance Attention and arousal set theory: Imagery improves performance in 2 ways: Imagery may help athlete attend to task at hand (cognitive) Imagery may help athlete adjust arousal level for optimal performance (physiological)

58 Imagery Perspective Internal vs. external perspective
Internal perspective Athlete imagines executing skill from within their own body Very natural, as we see the world this way External perspective Athlete imagining self from outside their body – like watching a video of self Less natural, but offers good opportunity to observe technique and form

59 Imagery Modality Visual imagery Kinaesthetic Imagery
Related to the visual processing of information “Seeing movement” Kinaesthetic Imagery Refers to sensory information from receptors throughout body Information about body-part location and movement, objects in contact with body, movement of muscles, joints and tendons (Schmidt & Wrisberg, 2004) “Feeling movement”

60 Perspective and Modality
Cox (1998) suggests: “internal imagery is considered to be primarily kinaesthetic in nature, as opposed to visual” (p176) “external imagery is considered to be primarily visual in nature” (p176) Callow and Hardy (2004) Internal imagery considered superior to external due to association with kinaesthetic imagery

61 Perspective and Modality
Callow and Hardy (2004) Used VMIQ (Isaac et al, 1986) to measure internal/external imagery Used MIQ (Hall et al, 1985) to measure visual/kinaesthetic imagery Study 1 Significant correlation between imagery perspective and imagery modality Study 2 External imagery significantly correlated with kinaesthetic imagery, internal was not! Conclusion: External imagery has a stronger association with kinaesthetic imagery for tasks where form is important

62 Perspective and Modality
Athletes can form kinaesthetic imagery equally well from both internal and external perspectives (Gates et al, 2003; Hardy & Callow, 1999) Advanced performers capable of switching between perspectives, and speed of change may lead to athletes experiencing both perspectives at once (Holmes & Collins, 2001) New focus of research External imagery perspective angle (Roberts et al, 2009)

63 Models of Imagery Paivio’s Two-Dimensional Model of Imagery (1985)
Imagery has both cognitive and motivational functions 5 independent types of imagery: Motivational Specific (MS) – athlete imagines self in specific sport setting that is highly motivating Motivational General – Mastery (MG-M) – athlete imagines self exhibiting ability to remain focussed Motivational General – Arousal (MG-A) – athlete imagines self exhibiting ability to control anxiety Cognitive Specific (CS) – athlete imagines self correctly executing specific skills Cognitive General (CG) – athlete imagines self correctly executing strategies and game plans

64 Models of Imagery Four Ws Where and When? What?
Most imagery takes place during training and competition (Munroe et al, 2000) Imagery used both in-season and during off-season, (Cummings and Hall, 2002) What? Smith and Holmes (2004) contrasted Written script of successful putting Watching video of self successfully putting Hearing ball dropping into hole Control condition Found – watching self most effective

65 Models of Imagery Four Ws What (cont)
Direction of imagery – positive vs. negative Nordin & Cumming (2005) – debilitative imagery causes decrease in self-efficacy and performance Imagery and motivation Wilson et al. (2003) – exercisers motivated for external rewards do not use imagery for improving technique, improving appearance or increasing energy Imagery and goal perspective Harwood et al (2003) – athletes high on task and ego orientation exhibit highest imagery use for 5 types of imagery

66 Models of Imagery Four Ws What (cont) Imagery speed
Calmels and Fournier (2001) – imaged gymnastics routines shorter than actual practiced routines Reed (2002) – diver imagery speeds: Intermediate divers > novice divers > elite divers McCann (2009) – slow motion/real time/fast motion No impact on confidence or affect Slow motion lead to better timing of performance

67 Models of Imagery Four Ws Why?
Improving performance (Nordin & Cumming, 2005) Also shown to improve: Anxiety control, confidence and motivation amongst elite rugby players (Evans et al, 2004) Anxiety control and self-efficacy of novice rock climbers (Jones et al, 2002) Confidence of high-level badminton players (Callow et al, 2001) Attention abilities of softball players (Calmels et al, 2004) Cyclical relationship – more confident individuals use imagery more (Abma et al, 2002)

68 Uses of Imagery Skill learning and practice: Tactical and game skills
Skill acquisition, skill practice, error detection and correction Tactical and game skills Strategy development, strategy learning, strategy practice, problem solving Competition and performance Familiarisation of location, mental warm-up, pre-performance routine, preview, review

69 Uses of Imagery Psychological skills Coping with injury
Arousal and anxiety control, improving concentration and attention Increasing self-awareness, building confidence and self-efficacy Increasing motivation, developing interpersonal skills Coping with injury Coping with pain and injury, dealing with long term injury, recovering from injury

70 Imagery Interventions
PETTLEP (Holmes & Collins, 2001) Physical nature of task – what imagery is for Environment – use of stimulus materials that mimic real environment Task – imagery represents the nature of skill to be performed and reflects level of imager Timing – imagery being performed in real time Learning – imagery content reviewed and revised as new skills are learned Emotion – necessity for inclusion of emotional component to imagery Perspective – prioritises internal, but external used when appropriate

71 Imagery Interventions
Key components (Morris et al, 2005) Vivid and controllable Involve all senses Realism Positive performance and outcome focus Base images on memories Use stimulus and response propositions Stimulus propositions – references to the environment, equipment, performance actions (e.g. tempo), performance setting Response propositions – responses to the environment, e.g. heart / breathing rate, muscular fatigue, sweating, etc

72 Developing an Imagery Script

73 Usefulness of Imagery Motivation Confidence Concentration and control
Imagery used to preview/review performance – competence Athlete responsible for image – autonomy Confidence Athlete imagining perfect performance – performance accomplishment Athlete ‘seeing’ others – vicarious experience Imaginal experiences Concentration and control Imagery used as pre-performance routine – athlete getting into zone, or increasing arousal Psychological tool for use during play – maintaining or regaining focus

74 Motivational vs. Instructional
Self Talk Internal vs. External Motivational vs. Instructional Internal Talking to yourself in your own head People do it all the time! External Speaking out loud to yourself E.g. Andy Murray Motivational Come on!! Instructional To do with technique Dealing with distractions – focus!

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