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By: Sarah Mills, Gil-Lyoung Kim, and Maddy Boire

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1 By: Sarah Mills, Gil-Lyoung Kim, and Maddy Boire
Gender Roles in Sports By: Sarah Mills, Gil-Lyoung Kim, and Maddy Boire

2 Quote People say ‘how could a woman take a hit like that?’ But we run track, play basketball, baseball, lacrosse and have babies. We're just as physical as men. Crystal Turpin, NY Sharks GM

3 Introduction Traditional gender roles portray women
as soft, submissive, passive, weak, or less-passionate. Whereas men are strong, able-bodied, aggressive, and competitive. If female athletes seem to be violating stereotypical gender roles, some people & media sources assume that they are lesbians. Men are paid more than women in the athletic field. 3 of the 5 top-paid female athletes in 2011 sexualized themselves in the media and spoke of it as a necessity when asked about it. These 3 athletes were Maria Sharapova, Danica Patrick and Venus Williams. In 2011, the highest paid female athlete was paid $25,000,000. The highest paid male athlete signed a 10 year contract worth $275,000,000.

4 Modern Stereotypical Men’s Sports
Football Car racing Wrestling Track and field Hockey Basketball Boxing Lacrosse Golf Baseball Range Curling Soccer Horse, bike, and motorcycle racing

5 Modern Stereotypical Women’s Sports
Gymnastics (and rhythmic gymnastics) Badminton Croquet Cheerleading Horseback riding Ballet (and other dances) Swimming Synchronized swimming Field hockey Figure skating Tennis

6 Skiing Past Today Competitive sport that required aggression.  Women began competing 4 decades later, in 1920. One of the few sports that allowed women to compete without any sexist issues. The sport evolved men and women. Both genders have their advantages and disadvantages due to gender anatomy Both genders equally participate, but men have more media coverage. Women tend to learn quicker than men.

7 Equestrian Female dominated sport and now considered a ‘female sport.’
Past Today Was a male dominated sport. Considered a ‘manly sport’ because competing horses was incredibly dangerous compared to most sports (Still is today). Men didn’t want women in the sport, because they thought it would affect their image. Spectators stole saddles from women’s horses, scared them out of a race; resulted in women being afraid to compete because of the bullying and hate. Women were banned to compete in Eventing, because it was deemed “too dangerous.” Female dominated sport and now considered a ‘female sport.’ American Horse Show Association ratio of women to men is 8:1.

8 Ski Jumping Only sport in Olympics that banned women from competing.
Then Now Gian Franco Kasper, FIS president and member of the IOC, said he didn't think women should ski jump because the sport "seems not to be appropriate for ladies from a medical point of view.“ Ten female jumpers sued the Vancouver Organizing Committee (VANOC) for violating the ban on gender discrimination in Canada's Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Only sport in Olympics that banned women from competing. Currently, Lindsey Van holds the record among both men and women for the longest jump. First participation of women’s ski jumping will occur in Sochi olympics.

9 Media Coverage On Sportscenter, men's sports are covered more than women's at a 20 to 1 ratio Over various channels, women's sports took up 6.3% of the airtime whereas men's sports took up 91.4% In the media, female athletes are sexualized in order to be found appealing by a generally male audience Many female athletes are photographed with children or their boyfriends in order to dispel any rumors that they might be lesbians

10 The Olympics The Olympics were originally a male-only event
The first team of women in the Olympics was in 1900 – it consisted of 19 female athletes Some comparisons: First male speed skating team recorded by the IOC was in 1924, women in 1960 Track and field: men started in 1896 and women started in 1928 Both sexes began badminton in 1992 Women’s ski-jumping is to be included for the first time ever at Sochi 2014, men’s ski jumping has long been included Men's sports in the Olympics are much more viewed At the first Olympics in Ancient Greece, women were so drastically excluded that they created their own games which they called the Games of Hera.

11 Videos Playing Unfair: The Media Image of the Female Athlete
Nike Ad: If You Let Me Play (1995)

12 Statistics Sex testing at the games began at the 1966 European Athletics Championships Women's teams account for 37% of athletic program operating expenses Women make up 57% of college undergraduates but receive only 42% of athletic participation opportunities Women account for only 42% of head coaches in women's sports and 2% in men’s Women hold 35% of all athletic administrative positions but only 19% of head administrative jobs in women's athletic programs

13 Statistics Continued Only 8% of athletic directors are females in Division I schools Female participation in high school sports has increased from 294,000 athletes in 1971 to 2.9 million in 2006 Female participation in intercollegiate sports has increased from 16,000 in to over 180,000 in 2005 The number of women's collegiate athletic teams has increased from an average of 2.5 to 8.45 per school 43% of men and 26% of women participating in sport. 1998 36% of men and 21% of women participating in sport. 2005 In 2005, Women involved in amateur sport as coaches reached 882,000, 15% higher than in 1998. Over the same period, the number of male coaches dropped 9% to 874,000

14 Claimed Equality How do you verify the eligibility of an athlete to compete in a sporting event that is limited by sex? In the Olympics an issue arose where it was said that males competed as women in order to win Intersex people also competed as women Sex tests to avoid this controversy But…This only increased the gender division in sports AND adds more controversy in terms of intersex, transgender and hermaphrodite athletes in gendered sports How do you verify the eligibility of an athlete to compete in a sporting event that is limited by sex? This issue has arose several times in the Olympic games, where it was said that males athletes competed as women in order to win or that an intersex person competed as a women. The first mandatory sex test issued for woman athletes was in July 1950 in the month before the European Championships in Belgium. Sex testing started at the 1966 European Athletics Championships due to suspicion that several of the best women athletes from the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe were actually men. ~This gives out the impression that men are better than women. ~it is not as simple to determine a persons sex by simply looking at xx chromosome vs. xy chromosome, because although an individual may develop as an xy for example, they could hormonally develop like a female, and vise versa. This brings up not only controversy with regards to sporting events, but gender differences in general, as well.

15 Timeline 1900 – The first 19 women to compete in the modern Olympics Games in Paris, France, play in just three sports: tennis, golf, and croquet – Eleanora Sears, after winning at polo, baseball, golf, field hockey, auto racing, swimming, tennis, yachting and speedboat racing, takes up squash – The owner of the Chicago Cubs establishes the All-American Girls Softball League, the forerunner of the All-American Girls Baseball League (AAGBL) – The Women's Golf Open is televised nationally for the first time. Eleanora Sears demonstrated that women could play men's games and was a main liberator of women in sports.

16 Timeline Cont’d. 1972 – Billie Jean King is named the Sportswoman of the Year by Sports Illustrated, the first time the award is given out – Women's sports come under the NCAA – Billie Jean King becomes the first woman head of a professional athletic league – NCAA elects Judith Sweet as its first woman president – Girl’s participation rates are rising faster than those of boys in almost every team sport – According to the International Olympic Committee women will compete in the same number of team sports as men for the first time in the history of the Olympic Games. The long-term effect of women’s sports coming under the NCAA, is that there are now less female coaches, managers, etc.

17 Theories & Schools of Thought
Feminism: Believes that women can perform equally like men, even though doctors claim that women’s body were in jeopardy if they competed. Functionalism: Women need to be physically fit in order to be healthy. Women in sports encourage girls, men in sports encourage boys. Psychoanalytic Theory: Sports/physical activity releases endorphins; therefore, it is highly recommended.

18 Solution So far we’ve realised the value of athletics for females:
Higher self esteem Less risk of depression Better academic performance Effects: Portrayed as sexual objects as opposed to competitive athletes Makes women seem non-competitive, weak and emotional Women receive less media coverage and therefore become dis- empowered What it should be: Gender neutral (no girls or boys teams) Instead of divided by gender, dive by skill level

19 Works Cited Gender Differences: Sports Sexualizing Women. (2012, August 6). Mett Kopas | Sociology of Sexuality. Retrieved October 18, 2013, from women/ Newell, A. (n.d.). Despite Women’s Strength, Stereotypes Still Nip Sports Performance – With No End in Sight. Cross-Country Ski, Biathlon, and Nordic Combined Racing, Training and News — FasterSkier — All Things Nordic. Retrieved October 18, 2013, from performance-with-no-end-in-sight/ Patchan, A., Urquia , M., & Kerr, J. (n.d.). Stereotypes - woMen in Sports. woMen in Sports - Home. Retrieved October 18, 2013, from Starr, B. (n.d.). Gender Roles in Women's Sports. Masculinity and Gender Roles in Sports. Retrieved October 18, 2013, from Suddath, C. (n.d.). Why Can't Women Ski Jump?. Time. Retrieved October 19, 2013, from Sports - Statistics on Women and Gender: Where and How to Find - Research Guides at University of Wisconsin-Madison. (n.d.). Home - Research Guides at University of Wisconsin- Madison . Retrieved October 21, 2013, from

20 Works Cited Cont’d. athletics/ English, Jane. "Sex Equality in Sports." Philosophy and Public Affairs (1978) Gantz, Walter, and Lawrence A. Wenner. "Men, Women, and Sports: Audience Experiences and Effects." Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media (1991) Guttmann, Allen. Women's Sports: A History. 1st ed. New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 1991 Hall, M. A. (2002). The girl and the game: a history of women's sport in Canada. Peterborough, Ont.: Broadview Press. Nelson, M. B., & Smith, L. (1998). Nike is a goddess: the history of women in sports. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press. Rhode, Deborah L., and Christopher J. Walker. "Gender Equity in College Athletics: Women Coaches as a Case Study." Stanford Journal of Civil Rights and Civil Liberties  (2008) Sabo, Don. "Women's Athletics and the Elimination of Men's Sports Programs." Journal of Sport and Social Issues.  (1998)

21 Image Sites (Football team) (Ballerinas) (TV) (Olympic rings) (Ski Jumping Banner) (Equestrian Banner) (Skiing Banner) content/uploads/2013/08/Blyth_Academy_Programs_WhitbySports_674.jpg (Hockey Banner) jpg (Men and Women)

22 Image Sites Cont’d content/uploads/2011/05/men-and-women- exercising.jpg (Men and Women) 821/U102P200T1D180637F10DT jpg (Men running)

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