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From Theory to Practice: Discovering the educational benefits of Sport Education in a UK primary school Jennifer Wall Keynote Address Association of Physical.

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Presentation on theme: "From Theory to Practice: Discovering the educational benefits of Sport Education in a UK primary school Jennifer Wall Keynote Address Association of Physical."— Presentation transcript:

1 From Theory to Practice: Discovering the educational benefits of Sport Education in a UK primary school Jennifer Wall Keynote Address Association of Physical Educators of Quebec, Annual Conference, November 2006 McGill University, Montreal, Canada

2 Acknowledgements This presentation is the outcome of a long term, collaborative project. Team members include: Rob Jarram and Sue Kirk (Mountfields Lodge School, Loughborough) David Kirk and Toni ODonovan (Leeds Met Carnegie) Ann MacPhail (University of Limerick) Louisa Webb (Loughborough University)

3 Video clip A teacher talks about the educational benefits of Sport Education for her Year 5 class

4 Pictures Of Sport Education in action, highlighting modified game forms, the Gala Day, team affiliation, celebrating success

5 Sport Education Origins Developed by Daryl Siedentop and colleagues at the Ohio State University, 1980s Introduced and developed by Siedentop doctoral students in New Zealand (eg. Grant) and Australia (eg. Alexander) in 1990s Introduced and developed by second generation Siedentop student in UK (Kinchin) and colleagues

6 Educational rationale for Sport Education Sport education has as its main goal, to educate students to be players in the fullest sense, and to help them develop as competent, literate and enthusiastic sportspeople (Siedentop, 1994, p.4).

7 Values behind this rationale Sport education aims to contribute to a sound, sane and humane sport culture, fostering sport in all its forms for all people Sport can be a vehicle for childrens educational development Sport should primarily be of benefit to the participants Sport should be accessible to all, regardless of race, class, disability and gender

8 Key learning outcomes A competent sports person: is someone who has developed skills and strategies to the extent that he or she can participate successfully in a game. A literate sports person: is someone who understands and is knowledgeable about the rules, traditions, and values associated with a specific sport, and one who can also distinguish between good and bad sport practices. An enthusiastic sports person: is someone who plays and behaves in ways that preserve, protect and enhance the sport culture.

9 Subject matter of Sport Education The subject matter is ….. Sport The key characteristics of sport –Seasons –Affiliation –Roles –Formal competition –Culminating event –Record keeping –Festivity

10 Seasons In sport –Are long enough to allow for a significant experience –Encompass practice, competition and (usually) a culminating event In Sport Education –Typically consist of 10+ lessons –Provide students with time to learn

11 Affiliation In sport –Occurs through team membership over time, leading to identification and a sense of belonging In Sport Education –Students remain in the same mixed-ability team (persisting group) for the course of the season –Students learn to work through social-interactive issues with team-mates, and this experience forms a basis for personal growth

12 Roles In sport, there are… In Sport Education, students are: –Players –Timekeepers –Scorekeepers –Equipment officers –Referees –Sports Panel members –Coach & etc

13 Formal competition In sport –Round-robins, league schedules, cup competitions In Sport Education –A competition schedule is set early to allow teams time and incentives to prepare –As the season progresses, competition-specific practice increases –Competition is never elimination type (eg. cup)

14 Culminating event In sport –Eg. play-offs, grand-finals, etc. to provide a climax to a season In Sport Education –Inclusive, non-elimination style finals (such as rugby 7s cup, plate, bowl, etc.) –One day swimming gala, athletics meeting

15 Record keeping In sport –Many forms, set standards, develop traditions In Sport Education –Simple or complex depending on age –Provide feedback –Establish traditions –Set standards for future

16 Festivity In sport –Special occasions such as finals –A celebration In Sport Education –Festivity can occur throughout a season; eg. team colours, team names, team chants –Awards and prizes at culminating event such as best and fairest; most improved player; best referee; most improved team

17 Developmentally appropriate competition The down-side of competition –Win at all costs –Cheating –Disrespecting your opponent Sport Education promotes appropriate competition –Play hard but fair –Honour your opponent –Accept when the contest is over, it is over

18 Modifying the sport Use small-sided games –Developmentally appropriate to the learner/s Create friendly playing conditions –Smaller balls, softer balls, shorter equipment, easier to hit targets, safe environment Games of short duration –Focuses intensity and assists concentration –Allows more participation by more players

19 Does the model work? Over 60 published, peer-reviewed studies of Sport Education since early 1980s, 25 since 1995. Mostly use qualitative methods (interviews, naturalistic observation, childrens drawings); a few used quantitative methods (questionnaires; tests); or mixed methods Most studies have taken the form of teaching experiments

20 Reviews Kinchin, G. (2006) Sport Education, in Kirk, D. et al (Eds) Handbook of Physical Education. London: Sage Wallhead, T. & OSullivan, M. (2005) Sport Education: physical education for the new millenium? Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 19(2), 181-210. Kirk, D. and Kinchin, G. (2003) Situated learning as a theoretical framework for Sport Education. European Physical Education Review 9(3), 221-235.

21 Research findings 1 – Motor Skill Development Students skills and play improved more with SE than with their previous curriculum programme (Alexander, Taggart and Thorpe, 1996; Grant, 1992) Teachers were sceptical of the development of motor skills as an outcome of SE (Alexander, 1994; Alexander, Taggart and Medland, 1993) Skill development noted with lower skilled girls (Carlson, 1995) Practice time increased (Pope & Grant, 1996)

22 Research findings 2 – Tactical Awareness Students became interested in game tactics as the season progressed (Grant, 1992) No differences found between SE and traditional approach (Ormond et al, 1995) Significant improvement in team game play performance (Hastie, 1998a) Cognitive outcomes such as better student understanding of rules and strategies were evident (Alexander et al., 1996; Clarke & Quill, 2003)

23 Research findings 3 – Physical Activity/Fitness Few studies on fitness outcomes Only 50% of teachers believe SE was an effective model for promoting physical activity (Alexander & Luckman, 2001) Both high and low skilled students averaged greater than 50% moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during SE lesson time ( Hastie and Trost, 2002)

24 Research findings 4 – Personal and Social Development Students develop qualities such as leadership, teamwork, peer support and active pursuit of socially responsible and equitable participation (Alexander et al., 1996) Increased level of interaction and cooperation between students (Hastie & Sharpe, 1999) Developed social responsibility and trust through the persistent group (Hastie & Buchanan, 2000)

25 Research findings 5 – Student attitudes Development of teacher and student enthusiasm (Siedentop, 1994) Higher level of student engagement due to inbuilt accountability systems (Hastie, 2000; Wallhead & Ntoumanis, 2004) Team affiliation was attractive to students, who made investments in their persisting groups (MacPhail et al, 2004; Bennet & Hastie, 1997; Hastie & Carlson, 1998)

26 Research findings 6 – problematising SE Peer leadership is problematic in terms of content knowledge development and securing equitable participation (Hastie, 2000) SE challenged social hierarchies among students to provide opportunities to transform PE cultures (ODonovan, 2003; Brunton, 2003) Opportunities for and resistance to teaching about social justice (Kinchin & OSullivan, 2003; Ennis et al, 1998) and potential for inclusivity (Kinchin, 2001) High compatibility between students conceptions of sport and experiences of SE showing possibility of transfer of learning (MacPhail et al, 2003)

27 Mountfields Lodge Primary School Loughborough

28 Description of Mountfields Average of 30 pupils per class Approximately 530 pupils on role 2 playing fields and one tarmac courtyard Number of teachers involved – 6 teachers, 5 class + 1 specialist Project began in school year 1999/2000, has been running for 6 years due to openness of school to be involved in innovation and a supportive head teacher

29 Factors Shaping Mountfields Sport Education Y6 – modified floorball game Y5 - modified netball game Inclusion for all – disability and behaviour Sports unfamiliar (no football)/ new to children Important to have all weather playing areas, influencing sport selection Available equipment key factor

30 Video Clips The year 5 (netball/ basketball) and year 6 (floorball) games in action

31 The Mountfields Year 5 Sport Education Season 2005-6

32 Affliation: Mountfields selection process Teams selected by teachers from pre season activities Size of teams determined by number of pupils in year Teams consist of pupils from all classes Transfers only as a last resort Had to make 1 change (transfer) in year 5 – parental intervention

33 Y5 Sport Education Team Names 2005-2006 A -Blue Lightening B – Tigers Terror C – Lightening Stars D – Golden Jaguars E – Swinging Stingers F – Racing Stripes G – The Volcanoes H – Diving Dolphins I – Dare Devils J – Mad Monkeys

34 Formal competition: Mountfields league Round robin competition of 10 teams per age group – results recorded in league ladder Points Vs Goals – encourage scoring over winning Difficulty of running league around annual school events Team coach led skills practices – differences in yr 5 to yr 6 (area for improvement)

35 Competition: Promoting positive competition at Mountfields Inclusion/ mixed ability teams Impact of peer regulation – referee and sports panel (Yr 6 only) Most valuable player – all teams vote for most effective member from every other team (area for improvement) Fair play – best and fairest Elements of sportsmanship – e.g. cheer at end of game, encourage appreciation of officials

36 Festivity and culminating Event: Mountfields Gala Day Celebration of a whole year achievement Team affiliation through team logo and t-shirts Get parents involved – informal reporting process Banners Trophies - rewards


38 Match (1)Group 4 Devils v Incredibles Time Keep: Maxine Scorer: Davinia Match (2)Group 3 Kool Kids v Seven Sporties Time Keep: Tian Ren Scorer: Matei Match (3)Group 2 Sneaky Snakes v No-Namers Time Keep: Leah Scorer: Liam Match (4)Group 1 Chocolate Mooses v Invincible Dragons Time Keep: Stuart Scorer: Keeley Match (5) GRAND FINAL Cup Climbing Koalas v Tiger Sharks Time Keep: William Scorer: Davki

39 Roles Year 5 roles Team representative Warm up officer Coach Reporter Timer Scorer Year 6 roles Team manager Coach Reporter Statistician Scorer timer Referee Sports panel member

40 Video Clips The children talk about their roles in Sport Education, including referee, portfoilio manager, reporter, timekeeper, sports panel member

41 Pictures Of timekeeper, warmup officer and referee in action

42 Year 6 Sport Education Duty Team Responsibilities Collect portfolios and hand out to teams Collect all kit and bibs ( Sticks, goals, balls) Set out kit in courts before matches begin Collect whistles and stop watches Hand out whistles and to all team referees during warm up Provide score sheets and pencils for scorers Collect all kit at the end of the day and return to appropriate places Return all portfolios

43 Portfolios Depository for all documents Match reports Team organisation Keep track of player involvement Form of teacher assessment Pupils allowed to add extra documents – e.g. fact file, section divider, tactics board

44 Cross curricular activities in Mountfields Literacy Art and design Citizenship ICT Maths

45 Teachers experiences of educational benefits Cross curricular - Helen Literate sports people – Matt Team building - Vanessa Inclusivity and progression - David

46 Video clips The teachers talk about the educational benefits of Sport Education, including cross- curricular learning, literate sports people, team building, inclusion and progression

47 Conclusion Sport Education can deliver valuable educational benefits to all children Educationally sound way to provide children with an introduction to sport Requires a supportive school environment, committed and able teachers Benchmarks and authentic Sport Education Researchers can help

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