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Sport Psychology Part I Commitment Communication Concentration

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Presentation on theme: "Sport Psychology Part I Commitment Communication Concentration"— Presentation transcript:

1 Sport Psychology Part I Commitment Communication Concentration
Bryan McCann Lecturer in Sport and Exercise Science Robert Gordon University Trainee Sport and Exercise Psychologist

2 Session Overview Introduction Part 1 – Commitment Break
Part 2 – Communication Part 3 – Concentration Summary, Q&A, homework! Session Overview

3 Aims for Session Application of theory
Sharing knowledge and experience Increasing coach efficacy Aims for Session

4 Interactive session Confidentiality Questions? Fun! Ground Rules

5 About me! BSc (Hons) Psychology – Glasgow Caledonian University
MSc Sport and Exercise Psychology – Bangor University Trainee Sport and Exercise Psychologist – BPS Chartered Status 4 years experience working with athletes About me!

6 Sport Psychology Experience
Support for athletes Olympic and international skiers International and national table tennis players International and national swimmers International rugby player National hockey player Youth football players Youth football academy Lecturing and research Sport Psychology Experience

7 You! Name Aims for session Sport Experience Athletes About You

8 What makes a great athlete?

9 Performance Profiling
Physical Psychological Attitudinal Technical Flexibility Imagery Motivated Basic technique Balance Self Talk Confident Arm movement Fitness Focus Control Landing position Performance Profiling

10 Performance Profiling
Quality Definition Fitness Aerobic/anaerobic Imagery Uses imagery to improve performance Confidence Secure in own ability Motivation Determined to succeed in spite of failure Basic Technique Perfect core techniques for sport Performance Profiling

11 Performance Profiling

12 Performance Profiling
Quality Ideal Level (1-10) Actual Level (1-10) Fitness 10 7 Imagery 9 4 Confidence 8 Motivation Basic Technique Performance Profiling

13 Application of psychology to sport to assist athletes in:
Overcoming issues (e.g., injury) General performance improvement Topics include Confidence, motivation, anxiety, communication, control, concentration, coach- athlete relationships, team cohesion, injury rehabilitation, etc Sport Psychology

14 The Sport Psychologist
One-to-one support Group delivery During sessions Dedicated workshops Through coaches The Sport Psychologist

15 Case Studies Each person select athlete they know. Note the following
Age Competition level Strengths Weaknesses Particular issue(s) experienced in the past Action taken regarding issue

16 Harwood (2008) – Coaching Behaviour Directives
Intentionally promote psychological skill same as physical skill Increase awareness of skill by illustrating good and bad examples Emphasise value of possessing skill Role model skill and employ role model examples Structure sessions so as to train skill Publicly reinforce demonstrations of skill Employ peer reinforcement of skill Review presence of skill Harwood (2008) – Coaching Behaviour Directives

17 Commitment What does this mean??

18 Commitment Motivated behaviours
Physical effort regardless of scoreline Persistent involvement in the game Elevated levels of effort Non-avoidance of difficult skills Persistence after failure Commitment

19 Motivation (Commitment)
Definition: “The intensity and direction of one’s effort” (Sage, 1977) Direction – whether a person seeks out, approaches or is attracted to certain situations Intensity – the amount of effort someone puts in to a certain situation Motivation (Commitment)

20 Motivation (commitment)
Key topics: Achievement motivation Attribution theory Achievement goal theory Self-determination theory Punishments and rewards Flow Motivation (commitment)

21 Achievement Motivation
Achievement motivation is a person’s orientation to strive for task success, persist in the face of failure, and experience pride in accomplishments (Gill, 2000). Competitiveness is a disposition to strive for satisfaction when making comparisons with some standard of excellence in the presence of evaluative others (Martens, 1986). Achievement Motivation

22 Achievement Motivation
Achievement motivation: Self- comparison of achievement. Competitiveness: Social evaluation or comparison. Achievement motivation influences: Choice of activities Effort in pursuing goals Intensity of effort Persistence in face of failure Achievement Motivation

23 Attribution Theory (Weiner, 1985, 1986)
Group discussion: What factors do your athletes cite as being the reasons for their success and/or failures? Attribution Theory (Weiner, 1985, 1986)

24 Attribution Theory (Weiner, 1985, 1986)
Focuses on how people explain successes and failures Suggests that all reasons can be classified into a few categories: Stability Locus of causality Locus of control Attribution Theory (Weiner, 1985, 1986)

25 Attribution Theory (Weiner, 1985, 1986)
Stability – the factor to which you attribute success or failure is either stable or unstable. For instance, your talent is a stable factor, whereas luck is an unstable factor. Locus of causality – a factor is either internal or external to the individual. For instance, an internal cause for success might be your increased effort in the last 20m of a 100m sprint, whereas an external factor for winning might be the fact that your competitors were not very good. Locus of control – a factor is or isn’t under the control of the individual. For instance, a factor you can control ca be your game plan, whereas one you cannot control is the fitness of your opponent. Attribution Theory (Weiner, 1985, 1986)

26 Attribution Theory (Weiner, 1985, 1986)
Links to Self Determination Theory Attribution Theory (Weiner, 1985, 1986)

27 Achievement Goal Theory (Nicholls, 1984)
Goal Orientation Task-orientated Focus on improving relative to her previous performances. Perceived ability not based on comparison with others (e.g., PB) Ego-Orientated (Outcome orientated) Success is dependent on performing better than others, Perceptions of competence are based on reference to others (e.g., winning) Achievement Goal Theory (Nicholls, 1984)

28 Achievement Goal Theory (Cont.)
Goal Involvement Ego involvement Situations which induce a state of social evaluation, accompanied by feelings of anxiety Task involvement Situations which do not induce a state of social evaluation, accompanied by low feelings of anxiety Goal involvement is a situation specific state measure of how the individual relates to an achievement situation at a specific point in time. Achievement Goal Theory (Cont.)

29 Achievement Goal Theory (Cont.)
Motivational Climate Mastery climate – athletes receive positive reinforcement when they Work hard Demonstrate improvement Help others through cooperation Believe each players contribution is important Competitive climate – athletes perceive that Poor performances and mistakes will be punished High-ability athletes will receive most attention and recognition Competition between team members is encouraged Motivational climate is perhaps of greater importance than whether an individual is task or ego orientated. Learning environments can also be task or ego orientated. An ego-orientated environment stressing social comparison can be very harmful to low ability young athletes. High ability young athletes seem to thrive in both ego and task orientated environments however. Achievement Goal Theory (Cont.)

30 Achievement Goal Theory (Cont.)
Goal Orientation (Personality trait) Goal Involvement (Psychological state) Motivational Climate (Environment) Task or mastery orientation Effort important Mastery important Task or Mastery Involvement Athlete works hard Athlete strives for mastery Mastery climate Effort rewarded Cooperation emphasised 2. Ego or competitive orientation Social comparisons important Winning important 2. Ego or competitive involvement Athlete defines ability as winning Athlete strives to win 2. Competitive climate Mistakes punished Competition encouraged Achievement Goal Theory (Cont.)

31 Do you have athletes who are task or ego orientated, and how does this manifest itself?
Do you have athletes who exhibit task or ego involvement in certain situations? Would you describe your coaching sessions as having a task of ego climate? Group Discussion

32 Self-Determination Theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000)
Focuses on three basic psychological needs Autonomy Competence Relatedness “...people are inherently motivated to feel connected to others within a social milieu (relatedness), to function effectively in that milieu (competence), and to feel a sense of personal initiative in doing so (autonomy)” (Deci & Ryan, 1994, p7) Self-Determination Theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000)

33 Self-Determination Theory (cont.)
Intrinsic Motivation Extrinsic Motivation Pleasure Fun Skill learning Skill improvement Challenge Excitement Etc. Social approval Social status Rewards Winning Beating others Trophies Etc. Self-Determination Theory (cont.)

34 Self-Determination Theory (cont)
Intrinsic Motivation Self-Determination Theory (cont)

35 Self-Determination Theory (cont)
Extrinsic Motivation Self-Determination Theory (cont)

36 Self-Determination Theory (cont.)
Intrinsic Motivation Knowledge – individual engages in an activity for the pleasure and satisfaction experienced whilst learning, exploring or trying to understand something new Accomplishment – individual engages in an activity for the pleasure and satisfaction experienced when creating something or mastering a difficult skill Stimulation – individual engages in an activity to experience pleasant sensations such as fun and excitement Extrinsic motivation Integrated regulation – most developmentally advanced form of extrinsic motivation. Activity is personally important because of a valued outcome rather than interest in the activity solely for the pleasure of the activity itself. (e.g., a PE teacher trains hard for the valued outcome of completing a marathon). Identified regulation – behaviour is highly valued, accepted and judged by individual and thus is performed willingly, even if the activity itself is not enjoyable. Introjected regulation – individual is motivated by internal pressures, yet the behaviour is regulated by external contingencies. For example, someone who stays in shape to impress other people. External regulation – behaviour is completely controlled by external sources such as rewards and constraints. Amotivation – individual is neither extrinsically or intrinsically motivated. E.g., a football coach who spends lessons simply allowing games to be played with no feedback or training of the players because he really doesn’t care. Threshold of autonomy – the three types of intrinsic motivation, along with integrated and identified regulation, all reflect the feeling that an individual ‘wants’ to do something rather than ‘ought’ to. These have thus been found to positively relate to affective, behavioural and cognitive outcomes. Self-Determination Theory (cont.)

37 SDT – Basic Psychological Needs
Competence The need to feel confident in one’s ability to carry out skills Autonomy The need to be in control of oneself and one’s destiny Relatedness The need to relate to other people, to care for others and have others care for you SDT – Basic Psychological Needs

38 Basic Psychological Needs
How do you currently promote: Competence Autonomy Relatedness Basic Psychological Needs

39 Basic Psychological Needs
Competence: Goal setting Mastery climate Relatedness Peer support Coach-athlete relationship Basic Psychological Needs

40 Basic Psychological Needs
Autonomy (Cox, 2012) Provide athletes with boundaries and choices Provide a rationale for training tasks Acknowledge and respect athletes’ perspectives and feelings Provide opportunities for independent work and taking initiative Provide feedback about competence that does not control or constrain behaviour Avoid conscious bullying Encourage a mastery approach to learning and discourage social comparison Basic Psychological Needs

41 Punishments and Rewards
Discuss existing use of punishments and rewards

42 Guidelines for reinforcements
Choose effective reinforcers Social Material Activity Special outings Schedule reinforcements effectively Reward appropriate behaviours Successful approximations Performance, not just outcomes Effort Emotional and social skills Guidelines for reinforcements

43 Guidelines for punishments (if they need to be used!)
Consistency Punish behaviour, not person Allow athlete input into punishments Do not use physical activity as a punishment Make punishment not a reward Don’t shout or yell, just inform Do not punish whilst playing Don’t embarrass Use sparingly, but enforce Don’t punish others for a teammates mistake Make sure athletes understand reason for punishment Guidelines for punishments (if they need to be used!)

44 Extrinsic rewards and intrinsic motivation

45 Controlling aspect of rewards
Perceived locus of causality (external) Cause of behaviour lies outside the person Intrinsic motivation decreases Controlling aspect of rewards

46 Controlling aspect of rewards
Perceived locus of causality (internal) Cause of behaviour lies inside the person Intrinsic motivation increases Controlling aspect of rewards

47 Informational aspect of reward
Positive information of competence Increased perceived competence Intrinsic motivation increases Informational aspect of reward

48 Informational aspect of reward
Negative information of competence Decreased perceived competence Intrinsic motivation decreases Informational aspect of reward

49 Creating a Positive Motivational Climate
TARGET acronym (Epstein, 1989; Treasure & Roberts, 1995) Tasks – focus on learning and task involvement Authority – allow athletes to participate in decision making Reward – Reward improvement, not social comparison Grouping – Create cooperative learning climates within groups Evaluation – focus these on personal improvement Timing – use proper timing for all these conditions Creating a Positive Motivational Climate

50 What will you do?

51 Intentionally promote psychological skill same as physical skill
Increase awareness of skill by illustrating good and bad examples Emphasise value of possessing skill Role model skill and employ role model examples Structure sessions so as to train skill Publicly reinforce demonstrations of skill Employ peer reinforcement of skill Review presence of skill How will you...?

52 Communication “Actions speak louder than words...”

53 The Communication Process
Can you identify the 5 steps of communication? Decision to send information about something Encoding of information by sender Channel through which information is transmitted Decoding of message by receiver Internal response by receiver to message The Communication Process

54 Communication Task

55 Coach-team Communications
Impart Inspire Monitor progress team is making Clarify Reinforce Coach-team Communications

56 Athlete-Athlete communication
Make sure everyone is pulling in same direction Strategies for improving team harmony Encourage listening to others Develop receiving and giving of feedback Increase tolerance of others Avoid backstabbing and gossiping Keep confrontations private Conflict manage if it cannot be resolved Athlete-Athlete communication

57 Coach-Athlete Relationship
Understand one another Use comfortable communication style Be open, honest, sincere, genuine and consistent Convey rationales for expectations Focus on being positive – role model Work on non-verbal communication Develop empathy skills Reduce uncertainty Recognise importance of managing own emotions Demonstrate open door policy Set aside time to meet with athletes Coach-Athlete Relationship

58 Coach-Athlete Relationship (Jowett, 2006)
Three interpersonal constructs of coach- athlete dyad: Closeness Mutual respect, common beliefs, trust, love Commitment Dedication, sacrifice, satisfaction Complimentarity How the coach and athlete complement each other’s strengths in terms of roles, tasks and ability to adapt Coach-Athlete Relationship (Jowett, 2006)

59 Coach-Athlete Relationship (Jowett, 2006)
Co-orientation The degree to which the coach and athlete agree on the 3 manifestations of the coach- athlete dyad Mastery-motivational climate and intrinsic motivation linked with co-orientation Coach-Athlete Relationship (Jowett, 2006)

60 Coach-Athlete Relationship (Jowett, 2006)
What can you do to increase perceptions of the following with an athlete: Closeness Commitment Complimentarity Coach-Athlete Relationship (Jowett, 2006)

61 Intentionally promote psychological skill same as physical skill
Increase awareness of skill by illustrating good and bad examples Emphasise value of possessing skill Role model skill and employ role model examples Structure sessions so as to train skill Publicly reinforce demonstrations of skill Employ peer reinforcement of skill Review presence of skill How will you...?

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