Presentation on theme: "Sport Programs and Professions"— Presentation transcript:
1 Sport Programs and Professions Introduction to Physical Education, Fitness, and SportDaryl SiedentopChapter 5Sport Programs and Professions
2 Discussion QuestionsIn what ways do participating and spectating positively and negatively influence each other?
3 Discussion Questions What would be the benefits and liabilities of increasing local, state, and federal government involvement in child and youth sport?
4 Discussion QuestionsWhat would school sport be like if it were based on the an inclusionary, rather than a an exclusionary model?
5 Discussion QuestionsIf a program for coaching certification were to be required, what criteria would you want coaches to meet?
6 Discussion Questions What opportunities for athletes between the ages of 18 and 23 to continue todevelop in their sport if they do not go to college and are not skilled enough to be hired as professional athletes?
7 Discussion Questions How should school sport be financed? How should recreational sport befinanced?
8 Discussion QuestionsHow does the sport experience differ for (a) the athlete with a disability, (b) the masters athlete, (c) the scholarship athlete, and (d) the child athlete?
9 Discussion QuestionsIn what ways will the quality of preparation for nonparticipant vocation be related to the future development of sport?
10 Indicators of this being the era of Sport: Introductory pointsIndicators of this being the era of Sport:The number and variety of venuesThe participation levels across age levels and gender$$$ spent of sport (equipment, spectating etc.)Time allotted to Sport on TVGlobally, Sport has exploded in the lasthalf of the 20th Century.
11 Untangling the Leisure Myths General belief: Modern societies work lessand have more time for leisure activities.Remember the Greeks and Romans . . .Beware of the data on this:Individualsleisure timeAmount ofPopulation AverageIndividualsTime
12 Types of Sport participation Child and Youth SportTypes of Sport participationInformal games and activities.Out-of-school community sponsored programs.Fee-for-service, Sport specialization instruction programs.Sport-specific, fee-for-service programsw. age-related competition (incl. Select travelling teams).State sanctioned inter-scholastic sport competition.National Council on Youth Sports (www.ncys.org)Dedicated to advancing values of participation anddeveloping and educating leaders.Nationwide participation estimates:65% of US children/youth (~ ).
13 Informal Participation Child and Youth SportInformal ParticipationIncludes participant-designed pick-up games.Games typically are modified from “parent game.”They typically include:Lots of (scoring) action.Optimized personal development.Close game scores.Reaffirmation of participants’ friendships.New trend >> Skate park activities.Part of the Extreme Sport movement.
14 Out-of-school, Non-profit Community Sport Child and Youth SportOut-of-school, Non-profit Community SportApprox youth participate in atleast one sport (e.g., Little League Baseball; Pop Warner Football)).Starting age is coming down.Dropout rates are up (higher for girls)Drop out, in part, a consequence of the exclusionarynature of interscholastic Sport.
15 Fee-for-service, Sport Specialization Instructional Programs Child and Youth SportFee-for-service, Sport SpecializationInstructional ProgramsTheir emergence is part of the increased culturalimportance of Sport, along w. its commercialization.Types include:Individualized training programs (especiallyindividual sports, e.g., Tennis, Gymnastics, FigureSkating).Commercial Summer Sport Camps.Sport fitness conditioning programs.
16 Fee-for-service, Sport Specialization Instructional Programs (cont’d.) Child and Youth SportFee-for-service, Sport SpecializationInstructional Programs (cont’d.)American Academy of Pediatrics(AAP) has issued warningstatement againstover-specialization at early ages.
17 Sport-specific, fee-for-service organizations Child and Youth SportSport-specific, fee-for-service organizationsIncludes clubs that offer year-around competitionopportunities.Opportunities for players to compete on “select”teams that travel extensively.Provide showcase for College recruitment efforts.Clubs also offer a range of competition levels fromrecreational to select team levels.
18 Sport-specific, fee-for-service organizations Child and Youth SportSport-specific, fee-for-service organizations(cont’d.)Includes local, state, regional and nationalorganizations (e.g., AAU).Fees cover basic cost (e.g., travel, uniforms, tournament fees).Main marketing focus:Help youth gain College Scholarships.
19 Supporting Organizations Child and Youth SportSupporting OrganizationsThey include:Youth Sport Coalition of NASPEInstitute for International SportNational Alliance for Youth Sport (NAYS)NASPETheir main focus:Develop guidelines to assist parents.Set standards for parents, volunteers,administrators, coaches & officials.(See also Box 5.2)
20 “Bill of Rights for Young Athletes” (NASPE, 1999) Child and Youth Sport“Bill of Rights for Young Athletes” (NASPE, 1999)Children and Youth have the right to:Participate in sports.Participate at a level commensurate to theirmaturity and ability.Qualified adult leadership.Play as a child not as an adult.Share in the leadership and decision-making.
21 “Bill of Rights for Young Athletes” (NASPE, 1999) Child and Youth Sport“Bill of Rights for Young Athletes” (NASPE, 1999)(Cont’d.)Students have the right to:Participate in safe and healthy environments.Proper preparation for participation in sports.Be treated with dignity.Have fun in sport.
22 Coaching for Child and Youth Sport Most of the approx coaches lackany formal training in coaching youth.Coaching approach is based on personalexperiences as player and spectator.Paid coaches are generally seen only at the moreadvanced/elite levels of competition.In the USA, there is no government oversight ofcoaching education/-certification efforts.
23 Coaching for Child and Youth Sport A peek beyond our borders:Significant government oversight.Coach education is more formalized w.extensive certification programs:No Certification? = No Coaching!NAYS includes a Coach Education as one of itsmissions: Since 1981 it has trained 1,coach volunteers and supports local efforts (See Box 5.3).
24 Interscholastic Sport Education is a State function!Interscholastic Sport is uniquely AmericanSignificant participation increases sinceearly 1970s (notably among girls).2-3 sport athlete number has decreased(one-sport specialization).
25 Interscholastic Sport Organization.Schools are grouped for competition based on sizeof student body (A ;AA; AAA; AAAA).Privately organized State Associations govern allaspects of interschool sport:OrganizationParticipation rulesSeason lengthRulesPractice schedulesCompetition & playoffs schedules
26 Interscholastic Sport Financing.Either supported through regular tax revenues(i.e., part of regular school budget) . . .ORSelf-funded through:Gate receiptsFund-raisingBooster club effortsSales of concessions, school logo clothing etc.Pay-to-play fees (as high as $200.00)
27 Interscholastic Sport School Coaches.During the 1960’s most coaches were licensedPhysical Education teachers.Currently, most are not certified teachers (again w.little, if any, formal preparation for coaching.Qualification oversight rests with the states . . .Difficult to enforce
28 Interscholastic Sport School Coaches. (Cont’d.)Current Coaching Certification programs:American Sport Education Program (ASEP)Program for Athletics Coaches Education (PACE)National Federation of State High SchoolAssociation (NFSHSA)University-based programs (e.g., West Virginia’sACE program).National Council for Accreditation of CoachingEducation (NCACE) services and supports coachingeducation programs.
29 Interscholastic Sport School Coaches. (Cont’d.)National Standards for Sport Coaches, developedby NASPE, cover:Philosophy and ethicsSafety and injury preventionPhysical conditioningGrowth and developmentTeaching and communicationSport skills and tacticsOrganization and administrationEvaluation
30 Collegiate Sport Programs School Coaches. (Cont’d.)National Standards for Sport Coaches, developedby NASPE, cover:Philosophy and ethicsSafety and injury preventionPhysical conditioningGrowth and developmentTeaching and communicationSport skills and tacticsOrganization and administrationEvaluation