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Show Me the English Chapter 3 Modifications to the English Structure Restructuring and Deletions.

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Presentation on theme: "Show Me the English Chapter 3 Modifications to the English Structure Restructuring and Deletions."— Presentation transcript:

1 Show Me the English Chapter 3 Modifications to the English Structure Restructuring and Deletions

2 Restructuring.. the replacement of one grammatical structure with another (Winston, 1989). This involves one multi-word phrase replacing another multi-word phrase. This can occur in combination with any or all of the other features found in addition.

3 Examples Which phrase is easiest to transliterate? 1. My house has three bedrooms. 2. My three-bedroom house. 3. My house, which has three bedrooms. 1.One out of four college students. 2. 25% of college students. 3. 25 out of 100 college students

4 Why is transliterating difficult? There is no correlation between form (lexicon and grammar) and meaning (semantics). The transliterator much always be conscious of the need to convey meaning over form and still stay within the confines of English word order.

5 Restructuring occurs when the verb is followed by the subject: Sailing west, the boat continued on. In a visual language we need the noun BOAT presented first, then switch to a Classifer: BOAT SAIL WEST CONTINUE ON (MOUTHING The boat sailing west continued on)

6 Double Negatives and restructuring The area was not unlike her hometown (We restructure and sign:) The area was like her hometown Without doing more research, we cannot be sure who our consumers are. (We restructure and sign:) We need more research to know who our consumers are.

7 Deletions Many parts of English words and phrases are not necessary to the overall meaning in context; they are redundant. (Winston,1989) By deleting redundancies the transliterator produces a clearer message form while at the Same time retaining the meaning…

8 Speed and Deletions It is not always possible to keep up with The entire English output; English is produced at about 180 words per minute. To keep up without losing the message, transliterators may have to delete words during their work…

9 Examples of deletions: If two phrases have the same meaning - We have come here, to this place, to celebrate. (delete one phrase) If a single word can replace a phrase in a sentence and retain the same meaning, we use the word… We have decided at this point in time WE HAVE DECIDED NOW

10 Deletions and tense In English each past tense verb is marked with a tense indicator: Yesterday I ate my food while I walked to the store Once the tense marker has been used, transliterators delete tense markers for individual signs when recoding The English message.

11 Deletion of words that bring no additional meaning: The thing that I want to emphasize most of all (We leave out of all ) What is one of the big functions of our program? I am late I was swimming (variations of the verb to be) Exception: When to be is meant as become I want to be a firefighter when I grow up I WANT BECOME FIREFIGHTER WHEN I GROW-UP

12 WRAPPING UP: Transliterating is a complicated process!! Keep in mind: As transliterators we are not glued to the English sentence verbatim as much as we are glued to the meaning.

13 Transliterators use different tactics to add clarity to the message: Additions: cohesion, clarification,modality, adaptation, repetition,reduplication Restructuring: replacing grammatical structures and adding new mouthing. Deletions: leaving out redundant words and double negatives.

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