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SEARCH AND RESCUE Land/Wilderness.

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Presentation on theme: "SEARCH AND RESCUE Land/Wilderness."— Presentation transcript:

1 SEARCH AND RESCUE Land/Wilderness


3 Search and Rescue Land/Wilderness
Methodology Terminology Search Techniques Two Types of Searches Land/Wilderness Urban Searches Geo-referencing

4 Search and Rescue Terminology
Search Areas Assigned by Incident Command Map Search Grids Labeled Map issued to each Team Point Last Seen (PLS) Point on map where victim was last seen by a witness Positive ID! Trailhead, hunting camp, office space, work area, etc… Place to focus search around Age, experience, physical fitness, how long ago sighted clues to how large search area will be

5 Search and Rescue Terminology
Last Known Position (LKP) During a search clues will turn up When they are solid enough to be reasonably certain that the search victim left it Since LKP more recent than PLS New starting point for search General direction of travel Approximate speed of travel

6 Search and Rescue Terminology
Probability of Detection (POD) Likelihood of finding search subject in: Given search area With technique used Different search techniques yield different POD’s Coin reported in Sand Box Each search technique has a “probability of detection” More thorough: higher POD/longer it takes to search same area Managing a Search is a balance of POD and Search Time

7 Search and Rescue Land/Wilderness Search
Equipment Maps Handheld GPS Compass Suitable clothing Weather / Environment Communications with aircraft Food, water, first aid, etc…. ATV’s

8 Search and Rescue Land/Wilderness Search
Search Techniques Bastard Search Look in obvious places/assume victim not lost What the searchers call the person after crawling through woods, etc… then finding him eating popcorn and watching baseball Example: boy goes hunting and doesn’t return by dark Searchers called out Boy returns home in wee hours In reality, hunting story was fabricated to get out of chores and spend day with Sally

9 Search and Rescue Land/Wilderness Search
When suspected – assign a team to do a hasty search of likely places the person would go Considerations Intelligence Latest info of plans of person Where they were going Who are the friends Recently made friends Speed Use radios & vehicles so planners can rule out areas Talk to the couple in the tent next door Was there an argument earlier in the day Leave a note on the car, etc…

10 Search and Rescue Land/Wilderness Search
Containment Search When search team arrives they have a PLS of victim Determine max area based on PLS How fast person walking How long since last seen Wind up with a circle with PLS at the center Direction unknown Make containment the top priority It limits your search area Anyone can do it Straight roads – two or three searchers Even two sides of area helps Must be vigilant – 100% that no one gets by them Run rehab for those in deeper searches/report in by radio regularly

11 Search and Rescue Land/Wilderness Search
Hasty Search 10 to 12 highly trained searchers dropped in to virgin area Goal: move quickly, look for clues or lost person Purpose: Bring a rapid end to the search Almost slow jog, check areas person may be injured or resting Not directed – team has free reign Slow down for point search; pass open areas very rapidly Speed requires trained rescuers who know to look for clues Footprints, broken branches POD based on skill of rescuers and search area POD: good rescuers in high probability areas – good chance for finding conscious person 30 – 40% chance a conscious person is not there if Hasty Search Team doesn’t find him, however, there is a 70% chance that an unconscious person is still there.

12 Search and Rescue Land/Wilderness Search
Grid Search Typical line of searchers walking through woods Searchers in straight line moving slowly and deliberately Maintain spacing with searchers on sides Do not take the path of least resistance (thorn bush) Seldom find victim, but typically find clues Sometimes used to give people something to do in very large searches Spacing – pack of cigarettes

13 Search and Rescue Land/Wilderness Search
Choke Point Search Use based on lost persons skills, and the terrain Large river with few bridges Typically not very useful where lost person is trying to evade searchers Can be handled by less experienced/physically fit teams

14 Search and Rescue Land/Wilderness Search
Track Trap Search Natural or man-made “traps” that capture evidence of a lost persons passing Footprints in sand Clothing caught in thorn bushes Where frequent lost persons are reported,(National Parks) SAR teams build track traps out of sand on major trails Track traps are raked smooth, then checked frequently Tracks are compared to those of the lost person

15 Geo-referencing Should they all at least understand the playbook?
Do we need to have all Searchers using the same system, Air Ground Teams Incident Command Others… Should they all at least understand the playbook?

16 Geo-referencing Latitude / Longitude United States National Grid
Global Area Referencing System

17 Lat/Long Lat / Long Keeping it simple~ for Catastrophic Incident SAR, the commonly described “Latitude and Longitude”describes what a SAR responder will use on a standard chart/map and what is displayed in a GPS receiver. Lat: North Long: 81.1k685 West

18 Lat/Long

19 United States National Grid (USNG):
Ground-based grided coordinate system based on Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) System. Basic unit of measure is the meter; positions reported as distance north from equator and distance from the zone central meridian. Purpose: provide a seamless, standardized ref system for nationwide use during times of crisis.

20 US National Grid

21 Global Area Reference System (GARS):

22 Georeferencing during a Catastrophic Event
NSARC Georeferencing Matrix: Catastrophic Incident SAR Georeference System User USNG Lat/Long GARS DD-MM.mmm (1) Land SAR Responder(2) Primary Secondary N/A Aeronautical SAR Responders(3) Secondary Primary Tertiary Air Space Deconfliction(4) N/A Primary N/A Land SAR Responder/ Primary Secondary N/A Aeronautical SAR Responder Interface (5) Incident Command: Air SAR Coordination Secondary Primary N/A Land SAR Coordination Primary Secondary N/A Area organization and Secondary Tertiary Primary accountability (6)

23 Georeferencing during a Catastrophic Event
The Footnotes During CIS operations, Lat/Long will be in one standard format: DD-MM.mmm. Land SAR Respondersmustuse USNG; however, a good familiarity with lat/long is necessary to ensure effective interface between Land and Air SAR Responders.

24 Georeferencing during a Catastrophic Event
Air SAR Responders will use lat/long. Air space deconfliction: only in Lat/Long. Air SAR Responders working with Land SAR Responders have primary responsibility of coordinating SAR using USNG(Both need to know USNG and Lat/Long.). GARS (Global Area Reference System): used for CIS response leadership situational awareness.

25 Georeferencing during a Catastrophic Event
Catastrophic Incident defined: any natural or manmade incident, including terrorism, that results in extraordinary levels of mass causalities, damage, or disruption, severely affecting the population, infrastructure, environment, economy, national morale, and/or government functions

26 Lat/Long –USNG -GARS Matrix is for NSARC member agency SAR Responders NSARC won’t impose georeferencing standards on volunteer, local, or State SAR Responders; however: Need to be aware of what to expect when a Catastrophic Incident is declared and NSARC member agencies conduct SAR operations.

27 Lat/Long –USNG -GARS Matrix will be implemented when a Catastrophic Incident occurs. (As defined in the NRF)

28 Questions?

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