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Scaffolding using the Siop model

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1 Scaffolding using the Siop model
*Jana ECHEVARRIA, Mary ellen vogt & deborah short created the siop model

2 What is Siop? As the number of English learners increases in schools across the United States, all educators are actively seeking ELL best practices to help them acquire the knowledge and skills they need to succeed in the classroom and beyond. The SIOP Model* is a research-based and validated model of sheltered instruction used throughout the United States. (Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol) Professional development in the SIOP Model helps ESL and content area teachers plan and deliver lessons that allow English learners to acquire academic knowledge as they develop English language proficiency.

3 Making Content Comprehensible for ELLS
Making Content Comprehensible presents a coherent, specific, field-tested model of sheltered instruction that specifies the features of a high-quality sheltered lesson that teaches content material to English learners. Each of the 30 items from the SIOP model are illustrated through vignettes. Three different lessons for each item are rated and discussed, allowing the book to be applied to a variety of content areas and grade levels. Making Content Comprehensible for ELLS Making Content Comprehensible presents a coherent, specific, field-tested model of sheltered instruction that specifies the features of a high-quality sheltered lesson that teaches content material to English learners. Three different lessons for each item are rated and discussed, allowing the book to be applied to a variety of content areas and grade levels.

4 1. Preparation: Clearly defined content objectives and language objectives for students, posted in the front of the classroom. (Bloom's Taxonomy)

5 2. LESSON PREPARATION Effective instruction should have the following:
Content Objectives: Are related to the key concept of the lesson. Are written in student-friendly language that suits the age and proficiency levels of the class. Are based on content standards. Are limited to only one or two per lesson Language Objectives: Promotes student academic language growth. Includes the use of either receptive (listening and reading) and/or productive language skills (speaking and writing) Connects clearly with the lesson topic or lesson activities

6 3. Building Background: Concepts explicitly linked to students' background experiences, links explicitly made between past learning and new concepts, & key vocabulary emphasized through pre-teaching. (Word Walls, Read My Mind)

7 Read MY MIND
Have the students number their paper 1 – 5. You pick a word for them to read your mind. Your first hint is a broad description of the word. They write down their guess. Your second hint is a little more specific Your third hint a little more specific Your fourth hint even a little more specific Your fifth hint gives it away. The student that has it right all 5 times gets a turn to have the class read their mind or gets to line up first.

8 4. Comprehensible Input:
Speech appropriate for students‘ proficiency level- slower rate, careful enunciation, and simple sentence structure for beginners; clear explanation of academic tasks, and a variety of techniques used to make content concepts clear-modeling, visuals, hands-on activities, demonstrations, gestures, & body language. (Modeling, Standup/Sit Down, See, Say, Do, TPR)

Teacher demonstrates : succinct, clear, short, repeatable First student turns to partner Repeats exactly what the teacher said and demonstrated Partner in support role for accuracy & accountability (teacher walking and monitoring) Second student repeats exactly what the teacher said with first student in support role Continue through the steps, add complexity

10 5. Strategies: Ample opportunities for students to use strategies, consistent use of scaffolding techniques throughout lesson, assisting and supporting student understanding, & a variety of question types used, including those that promote higher-order thinking skills throughout the lesson- literal, analytic, and interpretive questions. GIST, SQP2R, Margin Notes, Grouping Strategies, I Wonder, Graphic Organizers, 10 Important Sentences

Paraphrasing Think-alouds Reinforce contextual definitions Provide correct pronunciation by repeating student responses Slow down speech, increase pauses, speak in phrases

12 1o IMPORTANT SENTENCES Prior to the lesson, the teacher would read the text, chose the ten important sentences that as a whole capture the events and main idea of the text, and also choose vocabulary words to introduce to the students. 1. The Ten Important Sentences- Read aloud the text to the students. Introduce the ten sentences. Students can repeat, chant, sing, dramatize, and illustrate the ten important sentences. Reread the text and have students find the ten sentences in the text. 2. Sequencing Events-Using the ten important sentences, students place the sentences in order. 3. Distinguish Fact from Opinion-Use the ten important sentences or another set of sentences to have students distinguish between fact and opinion. 4. Cause and Effect-Using some of the ten important sentences or others in the text, discuss with students the relationship between cause and effect. 5. Determining Main Idea-Using the ten important sentences, the teacher asks students to locate which sentences tell the who, what, here, when, and why of the text.

13 GIST GIST (Generating Interaction between Schemata and Text) is a technique for letting students internalize a passage by selecting important words from it and writing a summary using those words. Display a passage on a transparency and then read it with the class. With the students, pick out eight or ten of the most important words from the passage and underline or circle them. Then write a summary of the passage in a sentence or two using those words. Do this as a class for several passages of text, then ask students to try the technique on their own or in pairs. This technique works well with non-fiction text, especially dense, complex text.

14 6. Interaction: Frequent opportunities for interactions and/or discussion between teacher/student and among students that encourage elaborated responses about lesson concepts. Cooperative Learning Grouping configurations that support language and content objectives of the lesson, sufficient wait time for student response, & ample opportunities for students to clarify key concepts in L1 as needed. (Jigsaw, Give One to Get One, Partner Talk)

15 Cooperative Learning Information gap activities Jigsaw Four corners
Numbered heads together Round robin/roundtable Questionnaires & interviews Three-step interview Story summaries Literature study groups Writing headlines Science & math investigations Think pair share

16 GIVE ONE TO GET ONE http://www. homedaleschools
Each student starts with a grid of 12 squares Write a separate fact in three squares. Then circulate around the room to different students filling in all of the squares with different facts. To get a fact, you must give a fact. You are done when your chart is complete.

17 7. Practice/LESSON DELIVERY:
Hands-on materials and/or manipulatives for students to practice using new content knowledge, activities for student to apply content and language knowledge in the classroom, & activities that integrate all language skills (Reading, Writing, Listening, and Speaking) Content and language objectives clearly supported by lesson delivery, students engaged approximately % of the period, & pacing of the lesson appropriate to the students’ ability level. (Student Engagement, Flashcard Game)

18 THE FLASHCARD GAME http://www. homedaleschools
Students make up at least 5 flashcards about basic facts, vocabulary, equations, etc. Students work in pairs. One student hands his cards to the other. The “tutor” holds up one card, reads the front, then shows the back of the card or gives a clue to the answer. When the “tutee” can answer without any additional assistance the card is returned. When the cards are all won back the partners switch roles. The tutor again gets the cards but this time calls out a one word clue. The tutee wins back all the cards when he can guess the correct answer without any additional clues.

19 8. Assessment: Comprehensive review of key vocabulary and key content concepts, regular feedback to students on their output, & assessment of student comprehension and learning of all lesson objectives ( spot checking, group response) throughout the lesson. (Vocabulary Review Game, Thumbs Up/Thumbs Down, Ticket Out the Door)

20 Vocabulary Review Game http://www. homedaleschools
Divide class into teams Vocabulary words are written on separate papers and placed in a big bowl. The same words are used for all three tiers. (at least 15 words) Tier one: One representative from one team randomly draws out one of the vocabulary words. That person then uses clues to the vocabulary word without saying the word. When the group guesses correctly, another card is drawn. The timer is started and stops when all of the vocabulary words have been defined correctly. The next group then goes and tries to beat the previous group’s time (Continued on next slide)

21 VoCabulary Review game
Tier two: (One word only) A new representative starts by drawing out a vocabulary word but now can only give a single word for a clue. Again, the group guesses and the time Continues until all words have been guessed correctly. The next team takes a turn and tries to beat the previous team’s time. Tier three: (Charades or pantomime) A new representative starts this tier but cannot speak and can only use a charade or pantomime to convey the meaning. Again the group guesses until all the vocabulary words have been chosen.

Use when reviewing a chapter or unit. Place students into teams of at least 5. Have them in a straight row. Ask a question that requires a true/false answer. The person at the first of the row has a true or false card to choose from. They pick the card that they think is the right answer and passes it back. The first team to have the correct answer passed to the back of the row wins a point. Rotate team members and go again

23 TICKET OUT THE DOOR/EXIT SLIPS http://www. homedaleschools
Some examples of Exit Slips : Describe one problem you faced during your classwork today. If you solved it, explain how. Write two things you learned today. Write one question you have about today's lesson. Write three words with the long "o" sound. Why are the North and South Pole so cold? Explain why Canada is not considered a melting pot.

24 Siop resources Making Content Comprehensible for ELLs
by Jana Echevarria, Mary Ellen Vogt and Deborah Short. Allyn and Bacon SIOP Lesson Plans SIOP Article SIOP Model Components SIOP Tutorial for Teachers

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