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Radiology – Paralleling, Bisecting, Bitewing

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Presentation on theme: "Radiology – Paralleling, Bisecting, Bitewing"— Presentation transcript:

1 Radiology – Paralleling, Bisecting, Bitewing
Chapters 17, 18, 19 Radiology – Paralleling, Bisecting, Bitewing

2 Chapter 17 - Paralleling Paralleling Technique- Also known as the extension cone paralleling technique (XCP)

3 Chapter 17 – Principles of Paralleling technique
Everything lines up to long axis Film is placed parallel to long axis of tooth being radiographed Central ray is perpendicular or at a right angle to the film and long axis of the tooth

4 Parallelism Achieve parallelism between film & tooth – Film must be placed away from the tooth and toward middle of mouth. Increase the object to film distance to keep film parallel with long axis of tooth – increased object to film distance = more magnification

5 Parallelism Increased magnification causes loss of definition
To compensate increase the target film distance (16” PID)

6 Advantages Accuracy- Produces an image that has dimensional accuracy
Simplicity- Use of the film holder and beam alignment device elminates guessing placement Duplication- It is easy to standardize and can be accurately duplicated

7 Disadvantages Film placement- difficulties may be encountered w/ children or w/ adult patients who have a small mouth or shallow palate Discomfort- the XCP may impinge on the oral tissues and cause discomfort for the patient

8 Chapter 18 Bisceting Technique
Also called the bisecting angle technique, bisection of the angle technique, and short- cone technique Another method used to expose periapical films

9 Bisecting the Angle Bisecting the angle between film & tooth – rule of isometry. Based on two imaginary equal triangles

10 Bisecting the Angle Film placed along the lingual
Point where film contacts the tooth – the film and the long axis of the tooth form an angle. Visualize a line that divides in half (bisects) the angle formed by the film & long axis of tooth. Line = imaginary bisector Not good for pt. w/bone loss – distorts level of bone

11 Angulation of PID Angulation of the PID is critical with the bisecting technique Angulation is used to describe the alignment of the CR on the horizontal and vertical planes This is important with the snap-a-ray or finger holding method

12 Rules for bisecting technique
Film placement Film position Vertical angulation Horizontal angulation Film exposure

13 Advantages Can be used w/o a film holder when the anatomy of the patient precludes the use of a film-holding device Decreased exposure time, a 8” PID is preferred with the bisecting technique

14 Disadvantages Image distortion- occurs when a short PID is used, it causes image magnification Angulation problems- w/o a film holder and aiming ring visualizing the imaginary bisector can be difficult, image may result in distortion Unnecessary exposure- with the finger holding method the patient’s hand is unnecessarily exposed to the primary beam

15 Chapter 19 bitewing technique
Also know as the interproximal technique Method used to examine the interproximal surfaces of the teeth

16 Bitewing aka Interproximal
Used to diagnose caries between the teeth and bone levels

17 Bitewings – 5 Basic Rules
Film placement – teeth to be examined Film position – parallel to crowns of both arches Vertical angulation – central ray of beam directed through contact areas Horizontal angulation – central ray of beam through contact areas Film exposure – beam centered on film so all areas are exposed – failure – cone cut or partial image

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