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1819 - 1837. Dartmouth College v. Woodward Marshall Court Decision Severely Limited the power of state governments to control corporations, which were.

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Presentation on theme: "1819 - 1837. Dartmouth College v. Woodward Marshall Court Decision Severely Limited the power of state governments to control corporations, which were."— Presentation transcript:

1 1819 - 1837

2 Dartmouth College v. Woodward

3 Marshall Court Decision Severely Limited the power of state governments to control corporations, which were the emerging form of business New Hampshire legislature tried to change Dartmouth from a private to a public institution by having its charter revoked The court ruled that the charter issued during colonial days still constituted a contract and could not be arbitrarily changed without the consent of both parties Reaffirmed the sanctity of contracts

4 Adams-Onis Treaty

5 Helped define the U.S.-Mexican border The border that was under Spanish control had created conflict between the 2 countries Spain sold its remaining Florida territory to the U.S. and drew the Mexican border line to the Pacific U.S. ceded its claims to Texas, and Spain kept California and the new Mexico region U.S. assumed $5 million in Spain owed to American merchants Later, lands kept by Spain would become battlegrounds for American expansion

6 Cotton in the Early 1800s

7 The new invention of the cotton gin separates seeds from fibers New states, such as Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas, produced cotton Led to a boom in the cotton market; its global effects crowned the staple as King Cotton New for cotton encouraged westward expansion in farming

8 Transportation Revolution

9 Innovations include construction of new roads, building of additional canals and the expansion of railroads Robert Fulton built the modern day steam boat, transforming river transportation The transportation revolution cheapened the market for trade and encouraged population movement west of the Appalachians

10 Utopian Communities

11 Copied early European movement at Utopia Attempt by cooperative communities to improve life in the face of increasing industrialism Groups practiced their social experiments that generally saw little success due to their radicalism Two examples of these communities were Brook Farm and Oneida

12 Antebellum Reform

13 Explosion in the number of colleges, Oberlin college in Ohio became the first coed college Expansion of state-supported elementary schools Dorothea Dix led in the establishment of asylums for humane treatment of the insane Prison reform Oratory became the common form of entertainment and information

14 The Lowell System

15 A popular way of staffing New England factories Young women were hired from the surrounding countryside, brought to town, and housed in dorms in mill towns for a short period The owners called these Factories in the garden to spread the idea that these facilities would not replicate the dirty, corrupt mills in English towns The rotating labor supply benefited owners, as no unions could be formed against them The system depended on technology to increase production

16 Slave Codes

17 A series of laws that limited slaves rights Slave owners were given the authority to impose harsh physical punishment and to control their slaves in any fashion they sought, without court intervention Prohibited slaves from owning weapons, becoming educated, meeting with other blacks without permission, and testifying against whites Severely limited rights of slaves

18 Missouri Compromise

19 Henry Clays solution to the deadlock over the issue of the acceptance of the new state Missouri At the time, the senate was evenly divided between slave and free states A slave state of Missouri would tip the balance of power John Tallmadge added an antislavery amendment meant to prohibit the growth of slavery into Missouri and to free slaves already in Missouri when they reach a certain age The Tallmadge amendment caused the senate to block the Missouri Compromise; it sparked heated debate about the future of slavery To settle the dispute, northern Massachusetts became a new free state (Maine) The legislative section prohibiting slavery in Missouri was by as clause stating that all land of the Louisiana Purchase north of 30-60-30 north latitude would prohibit slavery

20 Denmark Vesey

21 As a slave, he won enough money in the lottery to buy his own freedom Gained wealth and influence in South Carolina Accused of using church get-togethers to plan a violent slave revolt Vesey and 34 other slaves were hanged Some historians doubt the conspiracy was real

22 Gibbons v. Ogden

23 Marshall court decision Determined that only Congress may regulate interstate commerce, including navigation Gibbons received a monopoly by New York to operate a steamboat between New York and New Jersey Ogden received the same rights through Congress Supreme court decided that the state monopoly was void Use of judicial review over the state law made a decision of powers case

24 Hudson River School

25 Group of American landscape painters Part of increasing American Nationalism following the war of 1812 The influence of the European romantic movement led many American artists to paint their homeland Depicted important landscapes such as Niagara Falls, the Catskills, the Rocky Mountains, and the Hudson River Valley Artists included Thomas Doughty, Thomas Cole, George Inness, and S.F.B. Morse

26 James Fenimore Cooper

27 American novelist born in Burlington, New Jersey His writing was influenced by the American frontier and American Landscape His works include Last of the Mohicans(1826), The Water-Witch(1830),And the American Democrat(1838) His work, along with that of writers like Washington Irving, helped the foundation for distinctive American literature

28 John James Audubon

29 Romantic-era Artist Member of the Hudson River School, a group of landscape painters Demonstrated the emotion of nature, especially birds and animals In 1886, a nature organization took his name

30 Corrupt Bargain of 1824

31 Four presidential candidates-Henry Clay, John Quincy Adams, Andrew Jackson, and William Crawford Jackson won the popular vote but didnt win the electoral vote; as a result the election went to the House of Representatives Henry Clay, in the house of representatives vote, threw his support to John Quincy Adams In exchange for Adams winning the presidency, Adams gave Clay the post of Secretary of State Accusations of a corrupt bargain were made by Jackson, but are considered to be largely untrue

32 John Quincy Adams

33 6 th President Supporters called themselves the National Republicans; Jackson supporters called themselves Democratic-Republicans Led an active federal government in areas like internal improvements and Native American affairs Policies proved unpopular amidst increasing sectional interest and conflicts over states rights After his presidency, he served the House of Representatives, where he forced debates against slavery and against the removal of certain Native American tribes, a Jacksonian Policy

34 Tariff of Abominations

35 Tariff bill with high import duties for many goods bought by Southern planters John C. Calhoun, John Quincy Adams vice president, anonymously protested his own leaderships bill, suggesting that federal law harmful to an individual state could be declared void within that state The suggestion of nullification would be utilized by other states and would escalate hostilities, leading to the Civil War

36 John Calhoun

37 Vice president to both John Q. Adams and to his political rival, Andrew Jackson, who defeated Adams in 1828 Champion of States rights Author of an essay, The South Carolina Exposition and Protest, advocating nullification of Tariff of 1828 and asserting the right of the states to nullify federal laws Later, as a senator, he engaged Senator Daniel Webster in a debate over slavery and states rights, digging deeply into the ideas the would drive the country to Civil War

38 Andrew Jackson

39 7 th president After the war of 1812, he invaded Spanish Florida to quell Native American rebellion After the treaty of the war of 1812 had already been signed, He defeated a British force that invaded New Orleans, safeguarding the Mississippi River Popular due to his image as a self made westerner Implemented the spoils system approach to civil service Signed the Indian Removal Act, which provided federal enforcement to remove natives west of Mississippi Was against the Bank of the United States

40 Jacksonian Politics

41 Called for a strong executive who liberally uses veto Relied on the party system Emphasized state rights Politics came to rely on emotional appeals, with meetings in mass conventions to nominate national candidates for office

42 Spoils System

43 Andrew Jacksons method of exchanging government officials with new civil servants Rotation in office was supposed to democratize government and lead to reform by allowing common folk to run the government This system had been in place long before Jackson, but his name is tied to it because he endorsed its use In general, officials were replaced by those loyal to the new administration; they were not always the most qualified for positions Over the span of several presidential terms, the system led to corruption and inefficiency; it was ended with the passage of the Pendleton Act

44 Alexis de Tocqueville

45 French civil servant who traveled to and wrote about the United States Wrote Democracy in America, reflecting his interest in the American democratic process Assessed the American attempt to have both liberty and equality Provided an outsiders objective view of the age of Jackson

46 The Second Great Awakening and Protestant Revivalism

47 A wave of religious fervor spread through a series of camp meeting revivals The Burnt Over District was an area in upstate New York that was the center of the movement Protestant Revivalism was a reaction to rationalism, emphasizing personal salvation, strong nationalism, and the improvement of society through social reform Revivalism included participation by women and blacks, demonstrating the influence and growth of democracy Created diversity in American religious sects and some anti-Catholic sentiment

48 Mormonism

49 Religion founded by Joseph Smith, Jr. Smith claimed to have received sacred writings; he organized the Church of Jesus Christ of latter day saints Smith described a vision from God in which God declared specific tenets of Christianity to be abominations Because of these claims and unusual practices such as polygamy, Mormons were shunned Eventually, formed community near Great Salt Lake under Brigham Young Settlement became the state of Utah

50 Webster-Hayne Debate

51 Debate in senate between Daniel Webster and Robert Hayne that focused on sectionalism and nullification Came after the Tariff of Abominations incident At issue was the source of constitutional authority- Was the Union derived from an agreement between the states or from the people who had sought a guarantee of freedom? Webster stated, Liberty and union, now and forever, one and inseparable

52 Nat Turner

53 Slave who lead insurrection in Southampton, Virginia, in 1831 Influential among local slaves as a preacher Believed it was his destiny to lead slaves to freedom Led approximately 60 in revolt, killing the family of his owner and running rampant throughout the nearby neighborhood, killing 55 whites The revolt was put down and Turner, and some of his conspirators, and several free blacks were executed Led to stricter slave law in the south and an end to Southern organizations advocating aboliton

54 Tariff of 1832 and the order of Nullification

55 The tariff favored Northern interests at the expense of Southern ones Calhoun led a state convention calling for the Order of Nullification, which declared the tariff laws void; South Carolina would resist by force any attempt to collect the tariffs Jackson, though a supporter of states rights, defended the Union above all, and asked Congress to issue a new bill to give him authority to collect tariffs by force Jackson encouraged his allies to prepare for a compromise bill so that the federal government would not lose its image of control and so that South Carolina could back down from nullification Henry Clay presented this compromise tariff of 1833 and South Carolina withdrew the Order, but tensions grew between state and federal governement

56 Ralph Waldo Emerson

57 Transcendental essayist and lecturer Self Reliance, one of his essays, promoted independence Through the themes in his writing and the independent life he lived, Emerson strongly influenced American thought and culture

58 The Charles River Bridge Case

59 Demonstrated that a contract could be broken to benefit the general welfare Jacksons chief justice, Roger Taney, suggested that a state could cancel grant money if the grant ceased to be in the interests of the community Served as the reversal of Dartmouth v. Woodward

60 Gag Rule

61 Forbade the discussion of the slavery question in the House of Representatives Stemmed from Southerners members fear of emancipation Led to increased discussion by Southern conventions of ways to escape Northern economic and political hegemony

62 Sam Houston

63 Leader of Texas Independence Defeated Santa Anna at the battle of San Jacinto and claimed independence Houston requested both president Jackson and Van Buren to recognize Texas as a state, which was denied out of fear of a new slave state

64 Battle of the Alamo

65 During Texas revolution against Mexico, Ft. Alamo was attacked by the Mexican army and 187 members of the Texas garrison were killed Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, a Mexican military and political leader, was victorious Remember the Alamo was the garrisons battle cry in its fight for independence

66 The Panic of 1837 and Specie Circular

67 Recession caused by Jacksons drastic movement of federal bank deposits to state and local banks Led to relaxed credit policies and inflation Jackson demanded a Specie Circular, stating that land must be paid for in hard money, not paper or credit Recession lasted into the 1840s

68 Horace Mann

69 American educator who was the first secretary of the Massachusetts board of education Suggested reforms in education Made available high quality, low cost, nondenominational public schooling; the public school system had lasted to the present day Mann has been called the father of the American public school

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