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Programma Operativo Nazionale "La scuola per lo sviluppo"

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1 Programma Operativo Nazionale 2000-2006 "La scuola per lo sviluppo"
UNIONE EUROPEA Direzione Generale Occupazione e Affari Sociali Direzione Generale Politiche Regionali Ministero Pubblica Istruzione Direzione generale degli scambi culturali Divisione V Liceo ginnasio statale Francesco Scaduto Bagheria Programma Operativo Nazionale "La scuola per lo sviluppo" Misura 1 Azione 1.1b “Sviluppo delle competenze di base e trasversali nella scuola” configurazione b:promozione delle competenze di base e di settore Intervento 2005

2 An Open Window on the Arabian Culture in Sicily

3 A 100 hour course in five modules
Progetto PON “An Open Window on the Arabian Culture in Sicily” intervento 2005 A 100 hour course in five modules from 2nd December 2005 to 25th May 2006 to develop students’ communicative competence in the English language from level A2 to B1(CEF); to enrich their knowledge through the study of some aspects of Arabic history and culture ; to appreciate the contribution brought by the Arabs to the history, culture, and traditions of Sicily; to understand that richness comes from diversity; to cooperate for the creation of a better world.

4 Students & Teachers The course was held in Bagheria Grammar School “F.Scaduto” 2/3 hour lessons took place twice a week in the afternoon 23 students(3 as a reserve) were selected after an entry test to establish the required A2 level CEF the following 20 students completed the course successfully: Basta Paola-Benanti Filippo-Buttitta Alessandro- Cappuccio Martina-Cecchini Eliana-Ciminato Federica- Debole Noemi-Di Salvo Elisabetta- Gangi Flavia-Leone Isabella- Lo Piparo Gina- Maggiore Marianna- Mamone Antonella- Manzella Daniela- Manto Giulia- Mineo Valeria- Pinello Ambra- Pintacuda Rossella-Riccobono Marta-Virruso Francesca Internal and external teachers were involved: three of the school language teachers were employed as tutors: C. Aiello- O. Manicastri- A. Palermo two from the British Institutes of Palermo: Fergus Coughley- Melanie Flynn An expert in Arabic culture : J. Sparagano

5 What we students learnt
Notions-structures- communicative functions- vocabulary - expressions in the English language: to talk about daily routine to talk about hobbies/holidays to talk about on going actions-recent-past and future events to talk about duration to talk about weather conditions to express dates- quantities to report about what has been said to make suggestions- to ask for/give advice to express opinions to describe places/ people to talk about personality to make hypothesis to ask for/give directions-instructions-explanations to order food/ to book something to invite/to accept/to refuse to talk about likes/dislikes to express agreement/disagreement

6 Some information about the Arab world and the Muslim contributions to Sicilian culture
The Muslim domination of Sicily Mohammed’s life and consequences of the spread of Islam Sicily before and after the Norman conquest, the Muslim contributions to economic and social life: innovations in agriculture eating habits language art and architecture Contributions to Science and Medicine

by Valeria Mineo VE Rossella Pintacuda VG

8 MUSLIM SICILY Dominating Sicily meant a major role in controlling the affairs of the Mediterranean World, therefore during the Middle Ages the major Mediterranean powers fought for the possession of the island. At the time of the Islamic conquests in the mid-seventh century, Sicily (together with the southern and eastern portions of the Italian Peninsula) was a province of the Byzantine Empire. The period of Muslim rule in Sicily coincided with the early phases of the commercial revolution of the Middle Ages and was an era of brilliant economic prosperity for the island.

Ziyadat Allah mounted an expedition that succeeded in establishing a long term foothold on the island Mazara was taken by the Muslims Palermo fell Messina fell Enna fell The Normans landed in Sicily Roger I succeeded in capturing Messina Palermo fell in the Norman domination Toledo fell Roger I was the first to rule the island after the Muslims.

10 The Fall of Muslim Sicily
In the 11th century the Muslim world was engaged in warfare between Sunnis and Shias various taifas in Spain various princes in the east Taking advantage of these problems, western Christian countries started an offensive action on all fronts. The beginning of the end of the Muslims in Sicily began in the 11th century, with the war between the emir of Palermo and the Zirid of Tunisia. The arrival of the Normans did not bother the Muslims who continued to fight one another. It took the Normans about 20 years to take control over the island.

11 The Beginning of the Norman Domination
Roger I recognized the outstanding quality of Muslim culture and encouraged the artisans to cultivate their skills. His coronation mantle bears a kufic script: During Roger II’s reign, Arab poets and geographers were welcome to his palace, almost Muslim in style The main language of court and city was Arabic, as shown in many documents and on coins The Muslim system of administration was appreciated by the Normans, Muslims held some important positions In 1125 George of Antioch, a Christian native of Syria was a sort of grand vizier and commander in chief The influence of Muslim thrift, capacity and skill was everywhere manifest and acknowledged Under William I ( ) the conditions of the Muslims worsened The Lombards slaughtered the Muslim population, so many eventually moved to safer areas outside the towns

12 Under William II ( )the situation improved a little; according to Ibn Jubair, he “resembles the Muslim king, in manners and customs loving luxury, reading and writing Arabic Travelling to Sicily Ibn Jubar met the head of all the Muslims of the island and after a talk with him, understood the approaching end of the Muslim era: the nobleman had lost the favour once enjoyed, the property owned, and had also experienced prison Muslims were now persecuted and forced to become Christians Under Frederick, the Muslims were deported to the Italian hinterland, Lucera, where Pope Gregory IX tried to evangelise them, asking Frederick for support and threatening him of excommunication for not being backed up By 1300 the Muslims were wiped out on the island.

13 The Arabs ruled Sicily from 827 to 1060.
It was not a united reign. A series of local dominions were ruled by the “kaids” At first, they persecuted the Christians, then tried to make them convert to Islam. Eventually the Muslims let the Christians and Jews freedom to practice their faiths under the payment of a poll tax, “jizya”. Many placenames bear evidence of the Muslims’ presence on the territory which, for administrative purpose, was divided into three parts: Val di Mazara, the central western area Val Demone, the north- eastern area Val di Noto, the south- eastern area.

14 MUHAMMAD’S LIFE During a period of meditation he received his call as a prophet. Voices commanded him: "recite thou in the name of thy Lord who created” "o thou, enwrapped in the mantle! Arise and warn“ He started preaching a monotheistic religion. Muhammad was born in Mecca. He belonged to the Quraysh tribe that held the custody of the Kaaba (a sanctuary of divinities ) Married his wealthy employer, the widow Khadijah Those who converted to the new faith, were forced to migrate to Abyssinia 622 "the hijra“ took place. The migration of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina marks the start of the Moslem era 628 Muhammad led 1,400 Moslems to the city of Mecca 630 The Kaaba finally became the holy place for the Moslems 630 "year of delegations“ 632 Muhammad returned to Medina where he died on 8th June

15 The Holy Quran The Qur'ān is the central religious text of Islam. Muslims believe the Qur'an to be the literal word of God as revealed to Muhammad over a period of twenty-three years by the angel Gabriel and regard it as God's final revelation to mankind. The Qur'an consists of 114 surah (chapters) with a total of 6236 ayat (verses).

16 One-seventh of mankind considers it as the embodiment of all science, wisdom and theology;
It contains the religious laws and governs fasting, almsgiving, prayer, marriage and divorce issues, the treatment of slaves and war prisoners; The Book and the sayings of the Prophet prompted people to learn, to seek knowledge and to behave in a responsible way towards society and God.

17 Life after death in a garden-like paradise
Born in a region poor in water and with scarce resources, taking into account the good qualities and desires of his people as well as their weak points, Muhammad created a wonderful after death place. In the Koran this garden-like paradise, is described as a place run through by springs and rivers of milk and wine. Here rich flora and fauna at last replace the vast desertic regions of the Arabic peninsula and of northern Africa.

18 Unlike the Christian one, the Muslims’ paradise was a place where one could eat, drink and enjoy the company of beautiful virgins: the huri Whereas on earth diet is based on sour milk, oats, barley and foul water, in this Paradise the blessed can have plenty of citrus fruit, grapes and various kinds of vegetables: egg-plants (which appear in contemporary decorations of jewellery and embroidery works). All sorts of spices make food tastier; rice and pasta, mutton or lamb dishes. Game appears to be among the most delicious food.

19 Contributions from the Arabic domination to the Sicilian language by E
Contributions from the Arabic domination to the Sicilian language by E.Cecchini- M. Maggiore-A. Pinello-M. Riccobono It is possible to trace words of Arabic origin in many different fields: geography agriculture common names everyday expressions surnames Aspra

20 Geographical names: rivers and towns
Alcantara (the bridge) al-qantarah Aspra (aloe village) eriat-es sabhr Bagheria (place by the sea)-----Bahri Dittaino (mud river) wadi et-tayn Favara (water spring) El-fawara Misilmeri(the emir’s place)---Manzil’s al ’Amir Trabia (square) Tarbi’ah Geographical names: rivers and towns

21 Placenames Rahal (hamlet)--casale--Racalmuto Manzil (staging post) --
-stazione di posta Misilmeri Qasr (palace)--palazzo--Castroreale Qalat (castle)- -castello--Caltanissetta Marsa (port)--porto--Marsala Gebel (mountain)--monte--Gibellina

22 AGRICULTURE Land was divided into small plots Intensive and more sophisticated farming methods were introduced as well as networks of irrigation channels, “qanat”. New crops were introduced: cotton, flax, sugar cane, rice, citrus fruit, nuts and dates.

23 Words relating to agriculture and irrigation
Catusu: “Qadus”(pipe of cooked clay) Chaya: “Taya”(hedge or garden wall) Fiskia: “Fiskia”(reservoir) Gebbia: “Dijeb”(well) Margum: “Marja”(inundated field) Noharia: “Nuara”(irrigated cottage garden) Saja: “saqiyah”(canal for irrigation) Sulfa: “Sulfa”(advance of credit guaranteed to farmers) Zena: “saniyah”(wheel well) pozzo a ruota, noria water raising machines were developed by the Muslims 900 years ago

24 The Arabs introduced new crops
Pistachio pistacchio---fastuca---fustuq Grapes with big acini ---- zibibbo---zibibbu Orange blossom---zagara---zahara---zahr Sesame seeds------sesamo---giuggiulena---Giulgilan

25 Common words and expressions of Arabic origin still in use
ammatula in vain = invano balata balat----slab of smooth rock = lastricato bizzeffi bizef plenty = in abbondanza camula woodworm = tarlo dammusu-----dammus---- loft = soffitta filusa (money) = denaro sciarra sarra (quarrel) = lite The Arabic alphabet is composed of 28 capital letters, the letters are written and read from right to left.

26 Commercial terms and….others
ENGLISH ITALIAN SICILIAN ARABIC Measure for Oil/grain Cafiso Cafisu Qafiz Market Mercato Zuccu Suq Warehouse Fondaco Funnacu Funduq Basket Cesta Coffa Quffa Snail Lumaca Babbaluci Babaluci Cous cous Cous cous Cuscusu Kouskous

27 Surnames Badalà/Vadalà----Abd Allah = Allah’s servant
Cangemi haggam = barber/surgeon Fidemi/Fiteni------faddan = field Fragalà farag Allah = Allah’s joy Morabito person who doesn’t drink alcohol Zappalà ’izz bi-Allah = Allah’s power


29 Islamic agriculture by M. Cappuccio & F. Virruso (1/I)

30 The presence of Islam in Sicily involved the introduction of new cultivations which consequently changed Sicilians’ eating habits Citrus fruits, vegetables: garlic, onions aubergines, almonds as well as spices and herbs, widely spread in the Arabic world, are still present in many dishes of our gastronomy. Dates, prickly pears, almonds and honey are the main ingredients of palatable delicacies. It seems to be Arabic the custom of adding the essence of jasmine in drinks and sweets as well as the invention of the sorbet (from “scharbat”) and of the “cubaita” a cake made of honey, almonds and sesame. The Sicilian word “liccumarie” derives from “faludai” “licumi”. The culture of sugar cane was extensively practised in the area between Ficarazzi and Misilmeri, where the area called “Canneta” unwinds itself along the river Eleuterio as far as Pizzo Canneta. The area of Trabia was well known for the pasta industry. The recipe of arancine witnesses the Arabic custom of mixing rice with minced meat and saffron. Camphor and cloves were widely employed for the preparation of medicines as well as of food together with saffron, cinnamon and honey.


32 Farming methods in the villages and towns
Islam spread to farming & herding villages. Here is the deep ploughing method

33 A field tended with a hoe
Farmers irrigated the fields and then seeded them

34 Oxen, donkeys, and even camels were employed to farm the land
Plowing with a team of horses.

35 Harvesting

36 Rice Crops Rice was grown in hot
climates and where there was plenty of water. During the Middle Ages, rice was mostly for the wealthy because it was brought from India, Persia,and other climates. Most people ate bread and porridge made of barley and wheat.

37 Muslim farmers made some important advances in agriculture
A branch from one fruit tree can be cut and transferred to another tree.The branch of a green apple can be grafted into the trunk of a red apple tree.The green branch will still give off green apples. The same is true with grapes on grape vines, and with some other fruit trees.

38 Irrigation technology
Muslims introduced new irrigation systems. They built canals which brought water from springs and streams to the dry fields.

39 SILK The wealthy Muslims enjoyed wearing silk clothing which, being light and comfortable was suitable in hot weather. According to the Qur’an, men were not supposed to wear silk, but some had clothing partly made of silk, so that they could wear it as well as follow the Qur’an.

40 Elements of Arabic Origin in Architecture
The Aghlabites started new constructions to restore existing buildings and to enlarge Palermo. Maybe the highway, the Cassaro, was copied from the main market of Kairewan. Ibn-Haukal mentioned new factories being built (872) and a century after that Count Roger spoke of the beauty of the buildings he had found and in good part destroyed. King Roger’s Book mentions an old Christian temple converted into a mosque and eventually transformed into a Christian cathedral. Before the arrival of the Normans, architecture was flourishing in Palermo as well as in other Sicilian towns.

41 Palermo as splendid as Baghdad and Cordoba
With the arrival of the Aghlabits, the old Punic town of Palermo became an impressive, rich and densely populated town. In 883 the monk Theodosius acknowledged its splendour: “full of citizens and strangers… blended with Sicilians, the Lombards and the Jews, there are Arabs, Berbers, Persians wrapped in long robes and turbans, some clad in skin and some half naked, faces oval, square or round, of every complexion and profile and hair of every variety of colour or cut”.

42 There was a beautiful castle Al Qas (Cassaro) in the heart of the ancient area, named Palermo; and Al-Halisa, surrounded by high walls, was the seat of the sultan and of the administrative offices. It was provided with two public baths and housed the naval dockyard and the diwan. “The town has four gates….most markets are between the Mosque of Ibn-Saqlab (where the port was) and the Harat al-Gadidah (the new Quarter). The whole area was rich in springs: al Fawwaral- sagira (the small spring) and al-Bayda (the white one). In the 10th century the merchant Ibn-Hawqal praised the city for its palaces and the 300 mosques. They were not only used as places of worship but as schools too. Students from different European countries, eager to achieve attainments and distinction, read at Balerm University.

43 Edrisi, the famous geographer at the
court of Roger II, defined the city as the most remarkable and…. the Andalusian poet Ibn Giubar described it as: “the metropolis of the island… an elegant city … set between its open spaces and plains filled with gardens, with broad roads… built in the Cordoba style, from cut stone (soft limestone). A river ran through the town. “…four springs..gush in its...suburbs... The king roams through the gardens… The Christian women follow the fashion of Muslim women, are fluent of speech, wrap their cloaks about them and are veiled”.

44 Dar al-Azìz The Zisa Flavia Gangi (I sez.I) & Daniela Manzella (II sez.E)

45 The palace, started in 1166 shortly before the death of
King William I, was finished by his successor William II. Its name derives from the Arab “el aziz” that is “the splendid”. The Zisa, intended as a summer residence and for recreational purposes, was situated in the large royal park of the Genoard overlooking a large artificial lake in front of the vestibule.

46 The Zisa remained in royal hands for centuries but, after Palermo ceased to be the capital, it finally passed into private hands at the end of the 15th century. The palace fell into disuse and decay. Giovanni de Sandoval bought the estate in In the following years the Zisa was restored and altered, both in interior and exterior. Sandoval was later given the title “Prince of the Royal Palace”. The palace remained in the hands of the Sandoval family until 1808, when it passed to Francesco Notarbartolo, Prince of Sciara, and eventually fell into disrepair. In 1951 it was in part expropriated by the Region of Sicily, the remaining part was expropriated in 1968. On October 13, 1971 parts of the palace collapsed, causing serious damage to the internal structure and the western façade. Restauration started the year after.

47 Though commissioned by the Norman rulers of Sicily, the Zisa is in effect an Arabic building.
It was designed by Arab architects and built by Arab craftsmen according to Arab tradition. It is a prime example of Fatimid architecture and the particular Arab-Norman style.

48 The Zisa is built on a rectangular base, extended by two narrow square towers on the short sides.
The building, three storeys high, presents: three pointed arches in the façade, four double lancet windows on the first floor and five on the top floor (later changed into rectangular glazed ones). Two smaller windows on the second floor were added later. The original building was crowned by a heavy cornice, the preserved parts contain an Islamic text about the foundation of the castle.

49 The ground floor is preceded by an open gallery with three gates
The ground floor is preceded by an open gallery with three gates. At the centre of the gallery is the open entrance to the Fountain Hall, which boasts a splendid fountain, wall mosaics and special arches with the so-called “muqarnas” (a highly decorative honeycomb of miniature vaults and stalacite pendants, usually meant to enrich niches and windows). The upper floors contain a large number of rooms and passages which were originally the royal apartment. On the roof there were originally three open rooms which were later domed.

50 The Fountain Hall A mosaic frieze of peacocks and archers ornates the fountain hall. From here a series of rooms received cool air thanks to a special ventilation system, by which draughts of fresh air could circulate through the gaps in the walls.

51 The palace was positioned so that the arches on the façade would catch the summer breeze, which were cooled by the pool in front. The air then entered the Fountain Hall and passed through hidden passages upwards in the building, implementing an ingenious form of natural air conditioning. The three open rooms on the roof were intended as recipient for rain water, which were channeled downwards through hidden canals within the building towards the fountain in the ground floor, ultimately feeding the outside pool.

52 The Cuba

53 The edifice has a rectangular plan, with massive forms.
The four façades are marked by blind arcades, small windows and niches. The origin of its name is uncertain, it might refer to its cubical form. The palace shows a strong influence of Fatimid art.

54 It was, at least partially, designed and decorated by Arab artists who were living in Palermo after the Norman conquest. The Cuba was built in 1180 by William II of Sicily, as his personal pleasure pavilion. It stood at the centre of a fishpond surrounded by the great royal park, whose Arabic name “Gennet-ol-ardh” meant “paradise on earth”.

55 The origin of its name is uncertain, it might refer to its cubical
form or to a cupola (qubba) surmounting the building The edifice has a rectangular plan, with massive forms The four façades are marked by blind arcades, small windows and niches

56 The interior is represented by a single square room.
On the top of the wall the engraved kufic inscription celebrates the completion of the building.

57 Its vaulted exedras are decorated with muqarnas, stucco stalactites
Its vaulted exedras are decorated with muqarnas, stucco stalactites. Originally filigree windows filtered the sunshine and the walls were embellished with marbles and mosaics. Rain water was collected in an eight pointed star pool. Photo taken on 18th May 2006

58 CHURCH OF SAN CATALDO by Filippo Benanti ( VE ) Alessandro Buttitta ( IIIE )

59 Church of San Cataldo The church of San Cataldo is a typical example of the period in which Arab workers were in the service of Christians. It rises on the mezzanine in Piazza Bellini next to the church of Santa Maria dell’Ammiraglio. It is a notable example of Norman architecture, in fact it was built between 1154 and 1160 by admiral Majone di Bari under the reign of William I.

60 The church is characterized by a parallelepipedal outer structure composed by regular stone layers horizontally set one on the other. The façade is decorated by blind arches, partially occupied by windows. The roof has three characteristic red, bulge domes (cubole) and an Arab-style crenellation decorates the parapet.

61 The interior has a nave with two aisles.
The naked walls are faced by spolia columns with Byzantine style arcades. The nave is roofed with three red domes rising from a drum.

62 Each aisle shows cross vaults and two little apses which can not be seen from the outside. On the original altar a cross and the symbols of the four evangelists are carved in.

63 A splendid mosaic characterizes the original floor.
It shows the traditional Muslim iconic patterns.

San Giovanni degli Eremiti was built in 1142 on commission of Roger II by Arab architects and by his admiral. The Church, now deconsecrated, is one of the most typical monuments of the Norman domination in Palermo.

65 It was built upon a mosque.
That may explain its Arabic style with the five reddish cupolas. Roger II started the construction for the Benedictine Order in 1130. It looks as if he asked for the domes to show his support for Arabic influence in the architecture of Palermo at the time.

66 The bell tower bears a distinctive Norman appearance in the Gothic lines and mullioned windows.
Were it not for the bell tower, Saint John's could easily be mistaken for a mosque.

67 St. John's visual impact results mainly from its external features, with its charming Arabesque domes. Its elegant cloister, at the moment on restoration, blends harmoniously with the Church and its surrounding gardens. During the didactic visit to the site on 30th April, we saw part of it through a space between the fences.

68 Anthropological and palaeopathological aspects
WESTERN SICILY MUSLIMS Anthropological and palaeopathological aspects

69 INTRODUCTION Historical sources have given us a great deal of information about Arabic Sicily and its population, but what we know about the Muslims from a biological point of view is only thanks to the small number of Islamic necropoleis found in the western part of the island. We are going to analyse the archaeologic sites of Palermo (Castello S. Pietro, Oratorio dei Bianchi, S. Maria degli Angeli, Palazzo Abatellis), Entella, Monte Iato, Monte Maranfusa, Caliata (AG), Segesta (TP). In the end we will notice that, during the last period, there was the cohabitation between two different ethnic groups: the Arabic and Berber Muslims with the Christians, who lived together peacefully in a context of natural integration.

70 PALERMO Characteristics of Castello S.Pietro necropolis
The oldest necropolis; Single-corpse graves; NW-SE oriented bodies, with the head to south, in right lateral decubitus and without any funeral set; Men with a Berber morphology and women with an Arabic morphology; A healthy society using cooked meals.

71 Santa Maria degli Angeli
Oratorio dei Bianchi Typical Arabic tombs with bodies on right side The children were covered by rooftiles. Santa Maria degli Angeli Necropolis damaged by the superposition of later buildings we can see both Muslim and Christian tombs in the same area Palazzo Abatellis The corpses were buried lying on their right side

72 Entella Monte Maranfusa
There were very narrow graves where the corpses were buried in right lateral decubitus; Most of the corpses were of Mediterranean type, but there were also some of the Berber kind. Monte Maranfusa All the corpses were buried lying on their right side, according to the Muslim custom; Only one grave was wider and deeper than the others. The body was buried on its back.

73 Monte Iato A Christian and a Muslim necropoleis were discovered here;
The graves of both cemeteries free of burial goods; In Muslim tombs the corpses were buried according to the Islamic ritual; In the Christian tombs the corpses were buried face up.

74 TRAPANI Charateristics of Segesta necropolis
Situated next to the Greek Segesta theatre; Not very deep burials, a heap of soil was used a grave marker; Some of the graves were covered by a limestone slab All the corpses were buried according to the Muslim ritual; Both Christian and Muslim groups were unearthed in this area.







81 MEDICAL SCIENCE Modern historical research established that the earliest human civilization dates back to about 7,000 years ago. The Romans inherited their knowledge from Greek intellectuals as Socrates and Plato, Aristotle and Pericles, Demosthenes and Sophocles. However after the downfall of the Roman Empire there was a period of intellectual stagnation; and the Arab population was the only one to save the cultural progress. The golden era of Muslims’ achievement in the field of scientific and philosophical research began in 900 A.D. and lasted for two centuries. The physicians and scientists of the Islamic world having stood on the firm foundation of Greek science began to rely upon their own resources and to develop from within.

82 MEDICAL SCIENCE Jabir, known as the father of Arabic alchemy was a mystic and was known as “Ceber” in medieval Latin literature. Closely attached to the family of the ministerial dynasty of the Abbasid Caliphate. He founded a laboratory at Kufa, ruins of which were discovered 200 years later. Al-Razi (known in the West as Rhazes) was one of the greatest physicians of all time. In his young age he practised as an alchemist but later he devoted himself to the development of medical science both in theory and practice. He wrote Kitab Al-Masuri (called Liber Almatsoris in Latin) a 10 volume treatise which was published in several editions. Another book of his, Al-Judari-wal-Hasbah, that was translated into Latin and other European languages and published more than forty times between 1498 and 1866 A.D. contains detailed information regarding smallpox and measles.

83 MEDICAL SCIENCE The greatest achievement of Al-Razi is his celebrated work Al-Hawi the most comprehensive encyclopaedia of medicine in 20 volumes. This book translated into Latin by the Sicilian Jewish physician, Faraj Ibn Salim, on the order of Charles I, King of Sicily, was entitled “Continens”. It influenced the European medicine and contributed to gynaecology, obstetrics, ophthalmology. He also wrote a valuable treatise on the treatment of some common diseases in the East, including stones in the bladder and kidneys. He settled in Baghdad where he founded a hospital called Bimaristan. .

84 MEDICAL SCIENCE Ali Ibn Al-Abbas-al-Majusi known in the west as Haly Abbas, who died in 994 A.D., was the author of a celebrated work Kitab-al-maliki known as Liber Regius in Latin, an encyclopaedia dealing with both the theory and the practice of medical science. It remained a standard book until it was superseded by the Canon, the masterpiece of the great Avicenna. Perhaps Majusi was the first physician to write about the capillary system and to describe accurately the way in which a child is born. Abu Alì Al-Husain-al-Sina, known in the west as Avicenna, was one of the greatest intellectuals of the Islamic world who is ranked second only to Aristotle. His gigantic work AlQanun-Fil-Tib, known as Canon in Latin, is the culmination and the masterpiece of Arab systematisation. It is a medical encyclopaedia dealing with 760 drugs, as well as with general medicine, simple drugs, and diseases affecting all parts of the body.

85 MEDICAL SCIENCE Particularly concerned with Pathology and Pharmacopoeia it was translated into Latin in the 12th century by Gerard of Cremona. Publications including sections from this work as well as commentaries on it in various languages of both the East and West are innumerable. Avicenna also discovered the spreading of diseases through water. Avicenna was responsible for elevating Islamic medicine to its zenith, and his portrait as well as that of al-Razi still adorns the grand Hall of the Faculty of Medicine in the University of Paris.

86 MEDICAL SCIENCE Abu-Al-Jarrah-Al-Zahrawi, as Abul Casis, was a great surgeon who wrote Al-Tasrif, containing 30 sections of which the last one deals with surgery. Muslim physicians at that time did not pay any attention to surgery. Al-Tasrif, fully illustrated with sketches of surgical instruments, profoundly contributed to the development of surgery both in the East and the West. It was translated into several European languages.

87 MEDICAL SCIENCE Ali Ibn Isa of Baghdad, known in Latin as Jesu Occulist, wrote an excellent treatise on ophthalmology, a branch of medicine dealing with eye diseases. It was translated into Latin and was considered the authoritative work on eye diseases in Europe till the middle of the 18th century. Abu Ali al-Hasan, known as Alhazen in the West, is recognised as the greatest authority for his valuable contributions to the development of medicine and physics but his outstanding achievement is in the realm of optics.

88 MEDICAL SCIENCE Alhazen corrected the theories of Euclid and Ptolemy on the subject, and his Opticae Thesaurus influenced such great writers on optics as Roger Bacon, Leonardo da Vinci, John Kepler and all medieval western writers, who based their works on the research of Alhazen. The two greatest luminaries of the Islamic world Ibn Sina and Al-Beruni shared and fully endorsed Alhazen’s opinion that, “It is not the ray that leaves the eye and meets the object that gives rise to vision, rather the form of the perceived object passes into the eye and is transmitted by its transparent body”.

89 MEDICAL SCIENCE Ibn Rushd: known as Averroes in the West, was among the greatest intellectuals. Besides being an Aristotelian philosopher and the author of “Tahafut al tahafut”; he wrote about astronomy, grammar and medicine. He is the author of 16 medical works of which one, Kulliyat Fil Tib, dealing with general rules of medicine, was translated into Latin as Colliget. It was printed several times in Europe.

90 MEDICAL SCIENCE Ibn Katina: wrote a remarkable book on the severe plague in Alemaria (Spain A.D). Thanks to this work, which was edited and translated in Europe in the15th century A.D., the contagious character of the plague and its remedies, which were not known to Greek physicians, were revealed. .

91 MEDICAL SCIENCE The study of medicine in Europe began
at Salerno, where Costantine the African, a disciple of an Arab physician, organized the first medical school. The medical school of Montpellier soon followed. It was founded on the pattern of Cordova, under the guidance of Jewish doctors. Other schools on the same lines were opened at Pisa and later at Padua (Italy). Avicenna’s“Canon”and Abul Qasim’s “Surgery” remained, until the 17th century, the textbooks of medical science throughout Europe.

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