Two forms of participles Present Participle verb + ing e.g. swimming Past Participle verb + ed or some irregular forms. e.g. interested, gone, eaten etc.
Functions of Present Participles 1. Continuous tense These days, the temperature is rising steadily. 2. Gerund When the girls are free, they usually go window shopping. 3. Adjective Last night, I watched an exciting movie with my kids, the Spider Man 3.
Functions of Present Participles continues … 4. Together with verbs of perception, to show incomplete actions Did you see Daniel dancing? (Did you see Daniel dance?) 5. Joining clauses Mary left her desk. She whistled cheerfully. Whistling cheerfully, Mary left her desk.
Identify the functions of the following participles. 1. Their work doesn t have the glamour of fashion modelling. 2. Keung began modelling in secondary school. 3. Poses like Kawaii are boring. 4. She has to endure mosquito bites while posing on the grass. 5. This field is very competitive because new faces are coming up all the time.
Functions of Past Participles 1. Perfect tense Kilo has eaten thirteen Big Mac s in five minutes! 2. Passive voice Thirteen Big Mac s have been eaten by Kilo. (What function does been perform?) 3. Adjective The spectators were very impressed. The impressed spectators applauded. (Is applauded a past participle?)
Identify the functions of the following participles. 1. The number of hobbyists has shot up substantially as the equipment becomes increasingly inexpensive. 2. A neophyte can now charge about $200 for several hours work while experienced models may command $2000 an hour. 3. I wasn t assigned to an agency because I didn t have an impressive portfolio. 4. An obsessed fan threatened to destroy everything of hers.
Some adjectives w/o adverbs difficult (With a painful leg, Tom walks in difficulty.) friendly (He shook my hand in a friendly way.) likely lonely silly ugly We make adverbial phrases from these adjectives (or other parts of speech) to modify the verb.