Presentation on theme: "UNEP YEAR BOOK 2011 EMERGING ISSUES IN OUR GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT."— Presentation transcript:
UNEP YEAR BOOK 2011 EMERGING ISSUES IN OUR GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT
Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for food production; there is no substitute in agriculture! The global supply of this non-renewable resource is limited.
Greater food demand has led to a dramatic increase in the use of phosphate rock World food production needs to increase by 70 per cent to feed a world population of 9 billion by 2050.
Global demand for fertilizer is increasing with 2-3% per year with steady growth in developing countries Poor transport, low trade volumes, and lack of local production or distribution capacity result in farm-gate fertilizer prices in Africa two to six times higher than the world average.
Too much phosphorus can cause run-off to receiving waters causing eutrophication and algal blooms Human induced nutrient over-enrichment can push aquatic ecosystems beyond natural thresholds causing abrupt shift in ecosystem structure and functioning.
Environmental solutions at each stage of the food chain can promote wise use of a finite resource Practical measures include improved nutrient management, agricultural efficiency, erosion control, phosphorus recovery from wastewater, sustainable mining and changing diets.
New fashion statement or disturbing testimony of the extent of humans footprint? The ocean has become a global repository for much of the waste we generate. Plastic can be found even in the most remote parts of the Earth.
Plastic debris entering the ocean slowly fragments and accumulates in convergence zones Scientists found over 200 000 pieces of plastics per square kilometer in the North Atlantic and Caribbean convergence zone or gyre.
Potential health risks: persistent, toxic and bio-accumulating chemicals enter the food chain through ingestion of plastic by marine life The concentration of contaminants by microplastic particles may accumulate and end up in top-end predators such as swordfish and other marine organism eaten by people.
The amount of ingested industrial plastic found in stranded seabirds has been halved, but consumer plastic increased. Damage caused by plastic in the ocean ranges from entanglement in ghost nets to chemical contamination by ingestion.
Improved waste management is the key to preventing plastic and other types of litter from entering the ocean Opportunities to create a secondary value for plastic after its first intended use provide economic incentives for collection and reprocessing.
Sustainable waste management can provide sustainable solutions for health, economy and society With public policies and enabling conditions, challenges can be addressed in ways that reduce humanitys environmental footprint while generating new kinds of business and employment.
Events and developments in 2010 and key environmental indicators show rapid uptake of renewables Waste management is one of the sectors identified as key to catalysing a transition to a low carbon, resource efficient Green Economy. Renewable energy is another critical sector in this regard.
For more focus on climate change and other topics in the Year Book please go to: www.unep.org/yearbook/2011 At the start of the International Year of Forests, the UNEP Year Book 2011 puts the spotlight on forest biodiversity and its important role in a world adapting to climate change.