Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 17 Collective Behavior and Social Movements"— Presentation transcript:
1 CHAPTER 17 Collective Behavior and Social Movements Sociology3/31/2017CHAPTER 17 Collective Behavior and Social MovementsSection 1: Collective BehaviorSection 2: Social MovementsChapter 17
2 Collective Behavior- the relatively spontaneous social behavior that occurs when people try to develop common solutions to unclear situations.
3 Characteristics of Collectives-3 Factors Limited Interaction- members of social groups generally interact with one another directly, often for long periods of time. Interaction among members of collectives is limited and sometimes nonexistent.
4 Unclear Norms- the norms that guide behavior in social groups are clearly defined and widely understood. In collectives, norms for behavior are either unclear or unconventional.Limited Unity- people who form social groups are generally united by an awareness that they are members of these groups. Members are collectives seldom share a sense of group unity.
5 Collectivity- A gathering of people who have limited interaction with one another and do not share clearly defined, conventional norms or a sense of group identity.
6 Types of Collectivities Section 1: Collective BehaviorTypes of CollectivitiesCrowds – temporary gathering of people who are in close enough proximity to interactMobs – a mob is an emotionally charge collectivity whose members are united by a specific destructive or violent goal.Riots- a collection of people who erupt into generalized destructive behavior, the result of which is social disorder.
7 Types of Collectivities Section 1: Collective BehaviorTypes of Collectivities(continued)Panics – a spontaneous and uncoordinated group action to escape some perceived threatMass Hysteria – an unfounded anxiety shared by people who can be scattered over a wide geographic area
8 Types of Collectivities Section 1: Collective BehaviorTypes of Collectivities(continued)Fashion– fashion refers to enthusiastic attachments among large numbers of people for particular styles of appearance or behavior.Fads- is an unconventional object, action, or idea that a large number of people are attached to for a very short period of time
9 Types of Collectivities Section 1: Collective BehaviorTypes of Collectivities(continued)Rumors – a rumor is an unverified piece of information that is spread rapidly from one person to another.Urban Legends- is a story that teaches a lesson and seems realistic but is untrue.Public Opinion – refers to the collection of differing attitudes that members of a public have about a particular issue
10 Explanations for Collective Behavior Section 1: Collective BehaviorExplanations for Collective BehaviorContagion Theory/Gustave LeBon – the hypnotic power of a crowd encourages people to give up their individuality to the stronger pull of the groupEmergent-Norm Theory/Ralph Turn & Lewis Killian people in a crowd are often faced with a situation in which traditional norms of behavior do not applyValue-Added Theory/Neil Smelser – explains crowd behavior as a process that moves from step to step
11 Preconditions of Collective Behavior Section 1: Collective BehaviorPreconditions of Collective BehaviorStructural Conduciveness – refers to the surrounding social structure that makes it possible for a particular type of collective behavior to occurStructural Strain – refers to social conditions that put strain on people and thus encourage them to seek some collective means of relief
12 Preconditions of Collective Behavior Section 1: Collective BehaviorPreconditions of Collective Behavior(continued)Growth and Spread of Generalized Belief –people identify the problem, form opinions about it, and share ways of dealing with itPrecipitating Factors – refer to triggering mechanisms that set off the behaviorSocial Control – a mechanism used to control or minimize a situation
13 Types of Social Movements Section 2: Social MovementsTypes of Social MovementsReactionary – try to prevent a type of social change and return society to a past way of being; often use fear and violence; example: Ku Klux KlanConservative – try to protect prevailing values from what are seen as threats to those values; examples: the religious right
14 Types of Social Movements Section 2: Social MovementsTypes of Social Movements(continued)Revisionary – try to improve some part of society through social change; usually use legal methods and focus on a single issue; example: women’s suffrage movement
15 Types of Social Movements Section 2: Social MovementsTypes of Social Movements(continued)Revolutionary – seek a total radical change or existing social structure, overthrow existing government and replace it with their own version; often involve violent or illegal methods; example: the American Revolution
16 Life Cycle of Social Movements Section 2: Social MovementsLife Cycle of Social MovementsAgitation – initial stirrings of a movementLegitimation – movement viewed as more respectableBureaucratization – structure of movement more formalInstitutionalization – an established part of society
17 Explaining Social Movements Section 2: Social MovementsExplaining Social MovementsRelative Deprivation Theory – people join social movements because they feel deprived relative to other people or groups with whom they identifyResource-Mobilization Theory – not even the most ill-treated group with the most just cause will be able to bring about change without resources