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Domestic Support Obligations. The Bankruptcy Code was amended in 2005 with a great deal of focus on protecting DSO creditors. When the Code was initially.

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Presentation on theme: "Domestic Support Obligations. The Bankruptcy Code was amended in 2005 with a great deal of focus on protecting DSO creditors. When the Code was initially."— Presentation transcript:

1 Domestic Support Obligations

2 The Bankruptcy Code was amended in 2005 with a great deal of focus on protecting DSO creditors. When the Code was initially written in 1978, very few provisions dealt with what are now defined as DSOs. Over the years, provisions were added in piecemeal fashion, such that the protections varied widely depending on whether the amounts were owed directly to the child or spouse or were owed to the state when it acted on behalf of those parties. Moreover, there were still numerous gaps that made it difficult to ensure that those who were owed support actually received it when a bankruptcy was filed. 2

3 Discharge: Under the Bankruptcy Act it was understood that a bankruptcy discharge did not relieve debtors of their obligation to support their spouse or children. (Generally in line with the Doctrine of Necessaries.) The Bankruptcy Act was Amended in 1903, specifically excepting from discharge support obligations. In 1904, the Supreme Court recognized that the 1903 amendment did not change the law but only clarified that which had always been the law. Bankruptcy Law should receive such an interpretation as will effectuate its beneficent purposes, and not make it an instrument to deprive… children of the support and maintenance due them…, which it has always been the purpose of the law to enforce. Wetmore v. Markoe, 196 U.S. 68, 77 (1904). In 2010, the Supreme Court noted: support obligations are not dischargeable under any circumstances… United Student Aid Funds v. Espinosa, 559 U.S. 260 (2010), FN 10. 3

4 Introduced in 1978 to streamline the bankruptcy process, it was also intended to meet two additional goals: Protect debtors fresh start/ discharge. Assist in achieving maximum possible recovery for creditors. Congress intended to except domestic support where actions did not interfere with distribution to other creditors. Initially, though, the Section 362(b)(2) exemption only applied to collecting support from amounts that were not property of the estate. In Chapter 7, that was all postpetition wages; in Chapters 11, 12 and 13, its far less clear. In 1994 exceptions were added for actions to determine paternity and to establish or modify support orders. In 2005 exceptions were added to determine custody; grant a divorce, allow income withholding, and use various enforcement mechanisms under Title IV-D of the Social Security Act. 4

5 Priority status of DSO Claims In 1978, DSO claims were not given priority status. While this caused little concern in Chapter 7 cases, courts were uncertain as to whether child support could be included in chapter 13 plans and, if so, could it be paid in full where other general unsecured creditors were not. See Caswell v. Lang, 757 F2d 608 (4 th Cir 1985) and Mickelson v. Leser, 939 F. 2d 669 (8 th Cir. 1991) for opposing viewpoints. DSOs were made a seventh priority in 1994, allowing plans to provide for full payment of DSO claims. The 2005 amendments increased the level of DSO claims to a first priority. Government DSO claims were included in the priority but as secondary to amounts owed directly to beneficiaries. Avoidance Actions and Exemptions DSOs were excepted from avoidance actions in 1994. DSOs may also be collected from exempt assets. 5

6 In 2005, Congress passed what it hoped was a fully rounded and complete package of provisions to ensure that DSOs were collected and paid over as a matter of highest priority. 1.Bankruptcy should interfere as little as possible with the establishment and collection of on-going obligations for support, as allowed by State family law courts. 2.The Bankruptcy Code should provide a broad and comprehensive definition of support, which should then receive favored treatment in the bankruptcy process. 3.The bankruptcy process should insure the continued payment of on going support and support arrearages with minimal need for participation in the process by support creditors. See 146 Cong. Rec. S11683,11705 (daily ed. December 7, 2000). 6

7 In Chapter 7 cases there is little confusion as to DSO creditor status. Exceptions to the automatic stay are effective to allow for continued collection prior to discharge of the debtor because the debtors wages are not property of the estate and not protected from withholding. The non dischargeable nature of DSOs allows continued collection post discharge. While technical stay violations are possible, damages are generally non existent because collection activity rarely impacts other creditors based upon DSOs first priority status. 7

8 In Chapter 11, 12 and 13 cases BAPCPA has not been as successful in resolving all issues. While post-BAPCPA, courts have consistently held DSOs to be nondischargeable, and courts generally agree that exceptions to the automatic stay are applicable pre and post confirmation. Debtors have convinced the courts that confirmed plans, providing terms for payments of DSOs can, without more, be sufficient to imply a bar on using any other collection methods available to the DSO creditors – even those that are specifically excepted from the automatic stay. 8

9 As one court explained : Where the debtors post-confirmation wages are provided for in and used to fund a plan, they are considered property of the estate… Thus, under prior law, courts held that the exception to the stay provided in §362(b)(2)(B) for the collection of a domestic support obligations had little effect in Chapter 13 proceedings, because §362(b)(2)(B) only applied to collection efforts made against property that is not property of the estate. However, section 362(b)(2)(C) effectively overrules such cases, to the extent that the estate property consists of the debtors income… See In re Gellington, 363 B.R. 497,501 (Bankr. N.D. Tex. 2007) NOTE: This, of course, implicates the raging dispute about the interaction of Sections 1306 and 1327 and what is estate property post-confirmation. 9

10 While the goal of the 2005 changes was to ensure collection of claims, the issues the Supreme Court addressed in Espinosa United Student Aid Funds v. Espinosa, 559 U.S. 260 (2010), have reared their head again with respect to DSO claims. Most of the case law has arisen in Chapter 13 cases due to the larger number of individual filings, the same issues can equally arise in Individual Chapter 11 cases and could affect much larger sums. Moreover, while we discuss below the proposed Chapter 13 model plan that will bring much needed clarity in this area, Chapter 11 plan drafting will remain wholly free-wheeling, allowing the issues to continue to arise. 10

11 In Gellington, a DSO creditor reinstated a wage withholding order after confirmation of chapter 13 plan that had provisions to pay the DSO claim but had no specific injunctive language against collecting from other sources to speed up the payments. The Court concluded that while Congress had broadly excepted DSO enforcement actions from the automatic stay, it had not excepted them from §1327(a), or the analogous provisions of 11 U.S.C §1141(a). Thus, the DSO creditor was bound by the debtors plan which simply provided for payment of the claim (in a manner inconsistent with the wage order), and was enjoined from enforcing that order, even if that action was excepted from the automatic stay. Espinosa allowed that approach for a plan that contained language discharging a non-dischargeable student loan debt, where the creditor did not object. Espinosa, though, did say that the same result might not be true for a DSO. 11

12 Since the Gellington decision, two competing case lines have emerged: 1. Simply providing for payment of a DSO in a Chapter 13 plan is sufficient to enjoin actions specifically excepted from the automatic stay. See In re Gonzalez, No.12-23881 (S.D. Fla. September 20, 2013); /doc1/051112696868; OR 2. In order to enjoin actions permitted by exceptions to the automatic stay, a chapter 13 plan must explicitly and conspicuously state the prohibition. See In re McGrahan, 459 B.R. 869 (1 st Cir. BAP, 2011). R 12

13 With two lines of thought, DSO creditors have been placed back in Pre BAPCPA mode, once a plan is confirmed, for fear of sanctions from courts inclined to follow the Gellington model. Can wage garnishments continue in accordance with state law? See11 U.S.C §362(b)(2)(C). Can state licensure be withheld? See 11 U.S.C. §362(b)(2)(D). Can overdue support be reported? See 11 U.S.C. §362(b)(2)(E). Can tax refunds be intercepted? See11 U.S.C. §362(b)(2)(F). Can medical obligations be enforced? See 11 U.S.C. §362(b)(2)(G). Can DSOs be established or modified? See 11 U.S.C. §362(b)(A). The inability to ensure that the above actions can be taken impedes child support collections without benefit to other creditors, and effectively moots many amendments BAPCPA added to the Code. 13

14 Congress intended that DSO creditors not be impacted by the automatic stay unless the fair treatment of other creditors was at issue. The automatic stay is one means of protecting the debtors discharge. Alimony, maintenance and support obligations are excepted from discharge. Staying collection of them, when not to the detriment of other creditors does not further that goal… Moreover, it could lead to hardship on the part of the protected spouse or children. See S.R. No.989, 95 th Cong. 2d Sess. 1978 U.S.C.C.A.N. 5787,5837. Should it be presumed that the terms of a plan providing for some form of payment of DSOs is meant to enjoin other actions that the automatic stay allows? 14

15 Additionally: Congress intended the burden be placed on trustees to enjoin non-stayed creditors if actions interfered with the estate. By excepting an act or action from the automatic stay, the bill simply requires that the trustee move the court into action, rather than requiring the stayed party to request relief…Thus, the court will have to determine on a case-by- case basis whether a particular action which may be harming the estate my be stayed. While not automatic these injunctions may be granted under the usual rules for the issuance of injunctions See S. Rep. 95-989, 95th Cong., 2ND Sess. 1978, 1978 U.S.C.C.A.N. 5787 5836-37 Should the DSO creditor have to affirmatively object and act to obtain language that still allows it to pursue the full range of enforcement tools provided by Congress? Or should the burden be on the debtor, at the very least, to obtain clear language enjoining what otherwise would be allowed? 15

16 Two Possible Solutions: 1.Change through amending the Bankruptcy Code: Congress could amend Section 1327(a) (and Section 1141(a)) to ensure protection of these collections measures. Perhaps.: Except for payment provisions relating to DSOs, the provisions of a confirmed plan, bind the debtor and each creditor whether or not the claim of such creditor is provided for by the plan, and whether or not such creditor has objected to, has accepted, or has rejected the plan. (Added language in bold). Except as provided in subsection (d)(2) and (d)(3) of this section, and payment provisions relating to DSOs, the provisions of a confirmed plan bind the debtor… It must be noted that DSO payment provisions of confirmed plans are modifiable pursuant to 11 U.S.C. §1329(c) and §1127(e)(3). 16

17 2.Adoption Chapter 13 Uniform Plan Model The Rules drafters are considering adoption of a uniform national Chapter 13 plan in large part to avoid recurring Espinosa issues. Plan would set up uniform default language for plan terms; while non-standard language could be allowed, its existence must be explicitly referenced on the first page of plan and it must be set out at specified location. Most importantly, the Rules would provide that the confirmation order only approves provisions that follow that approach. Thus, the discharge by ambush process is greatly limited, since a creditor need look in only one defined location to see if changes are being made from the appropriate treatment. 17

18 Current draft of Uniform Plan is a good start. But it still leaves too much open in the treatment of DSOs. Any National plan should provide for treatment of DSOs separate and apart from other creditors so their unique protections and treatment are not lost. The plan should provide that all DSO collection activity excepted from the automatic stay remains available to DSO creditors unless specifically enjoined after hearing. Doing so should, at a minimum, require a finding that allowing the additional collection methods would preclude the debtor from implementing a plan that both a) ensures full payments allowed to DSO creditors, and b) provides additional payments to other creditors. To the extent that agreement is required from the DSO creditor to any terms of such a plan, such consent should be express and not merely inferred from a failure to object. 18

19 Debtors, DSO Creditors, and Trustees should have the availability of choosing one of three options for payment of DSO obligations through the Chapter 13 plan. Option 1. allows DSO Creditors to collect all amounts due through the normal state collection process with no payments being made through the Chapter 13 plan. No collection activity would be enjoined. Option 2. allows DSO Creditors to collect DSO arrearages through the chapter 13 plan which must include specific language enjoining efforts to collect any arrears using state remedies. Option 3. would be a hybrid of 1 and 2 without any injunctive language. State court orders would remain in effect and the plan would be modified pursuant to 11 U.S.C. §1329(a)(3) to account for monies collected from sources other than the bankruptcy estate. 19

20 Where Individual Chapter 11 cases are filed, a Uniform Model plan would be difficult to develop. However, rules relating to Individual Chapter 11 debtors could be adopted to provide the same protection for DSO creditors as the Chapter 13 Uniform Plan envisions. Thus, the debtors wages are now property of the estate under Section 1115, but, just as with Section 1327, the default language in Section 1141, revests all property of the estate in the debtor, subject to contrary provisions in the plan. Thus, the same issues as to whether postconfirmation wages are property of the estate can arise. The answer can determine whether the stay (or its exceptions apply). 20

21 Similarly, if the plan proposes payments terms that conflict with an existing wage order as to past – or current – DSOs, will confirmation override that order? How will that interact with the provisions of Section 1112(b)(4)(P) that provide that failure to remain current on ongoing DSOs is a ground for dismissing the case? And, as with Chapter 13 cases, is the mere provision for payment terms over time sufficient to bar the use of other means of collection that would allow for faster payments – such as intercepting tax refunds and similar measures. Does it matter if such payments are covered in the plan or not? Clearly, there is value in thinking these issues through and drafting model Chapter 11 default language to deal with them. 21

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