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3Rs of Digital Stewardship The 3 Rs of Digital Stewardship WPC/P&I Brownbag Presentation Stephen Chapman Weissman Preservation Center Harvard University.

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Presentation on theme: "3Rs of Digital Stewardship The 3 Rs of Digital Stewardship WPC/P&I Brownbag Presentation Stephen Chapman Weissman Preservation Center Harvard University."— Presentation transcript:

1 3Rs of Digital Stewardship The 3 Rs of Digital Stewardship WPC/P&I Brownbag Presentation Stephen Chapman Weissman Preservation Center Harvard University Library 14 March 2007

2 3Rs of Digital Stewardship One in an ongoing series of presentations… Digital Repository Service: An Introduction OIS open meeting, May 24, 2001 OCLC Digital & Preservation Cooperative Meeting Report OIS/WPC brownbag, July, 2003 Digitizing Images, Digitizing Texts WPC/P&I brownbags, September & October, 2003 3Rs talk today DRS2, DRS updates Upcoming, probably FY08, watch HULINFO

3 3Rs of Digital Stewardship The three Rs Risk management Identify and monitor threats to sustainability; present and advocate strategies to minimize or eliminate threats Repository Safe place for objects and object management Roles…reciprocal roles & responsibilities Strategies for life-cycle management require collection and technology specialists, as well as communities of expertise

4 3Rs of Digital Stewardship 1. Risk management Security and access control Preventing unauthorized use, tampering, or theft Protecting interests of rights holders Data obsolescence Mechanical failure media incompatible with players and device drivers formats incompatible with software Functional obsolescence Format(s) incompatible with user needs and preferences static images made obsolete by dynamic delivery?

5 3Rs of Digital Stewardship Managing costs essential to managing risk Minimize number of conservation and reformatting interventions over entire life-cycle Optimize materials for longevity upon acquisition Maximize intervals between interventions: reformat infrequently and wisely Manage the storage environment Media longevity not independent of associated environmentGeography is preservation destiny. (Reilly, 2004) Sustainable business model for cost recovery Collection management costs (including interventions) Repository storage costs (e.g., $5.00 per GB/year at Harvard) All other digital library infrastructure costs (staff, systems)

6 3Rs of Digital Stewardship 2. Repository A understood to mean any organization or system charged with the task of preserving information over the long term and making it accessible to a specified class of users (known as the designated community) Brian Lavoie, OCLC Research, 2000

7 3Rs of Digital Stewardship Trusted repository Building ArtSTOR into a trusted repository … will require not only time and resources, but also collegiality and the active participation of individuals from academic institutions, museums, libraries, and research centers; specialists in imaging and in building databases; others experienced in the creation of digital resources; experts in intellectual property rights; and wise generalists. One clear conclusion is that working on this project inspires humility! William G. Bowen, President Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, 2001

8 3Rs of Digital Stewardship Appropriate venues A major question we face in the coming years is: Who should be responsible for saving material in electronic form? Should individuals carry this responsibility themselves? Or should social entities (such as businesses, libraries, archives, and professional societies) aggressively intervene to save material? Howard Besser, 2000

9 3Rs of Digital Stewardship Where are preservation repositories today? National archives and libraries Koninklijke Bibliotheek (e-Depot)e-Depot Library of Congress (NDIIPP)NDIIPP National Library of Australia (PANDORA, web archive)PANDORA UK National Archives (NDAD)NDAD Research libraries California Digital Library (CDL Digital Preservation Repository)CDL Digital Preservation Repository Harvard University Library (HUL DRS)HUL DRS Collaboratives Arts and Humanities Data Service (AHDS), UK national serviceAHDS Florida Center for Library Automation (FCLA), Florida Digital ArchiveFCLA OCLC Digital Archive Portico

10 3Rs of Digital Stewardship Preservation repository: compliance Long-term storage strategy for masters OAIS (ISO 14721:2003) compliance - ingest - archival storage - data management - administration - preservation planning - access - common services accountable, auditable, and fiscally sustainable entity - RLG-NARA Trustworthy Repositories Audit & Certification: Criteria and Checklist (TRAC)TRAC Key principle = active (ongoing) oversight of total environment

11 3Rs of Digital Stewardship OAIS functional entities Simplified diagram from AHDS, Moving Images and Sound Archiving Study, June 2006

12 3Rs of Digital Stewardship OAIS information packages SIPAIPDIPAIP

13 3Rs of Digital Stewardship Repository infrastructure and services Integrated systems Acquisition (ingest), storage, backup, database, dissemination Centers of expertise System and database administrators, format experts, metadata analysts, preservation planners, digital librarians Auditors? Possible 3 rd party implementors of TRAC (see CRL report)CRL report

14 3Rs of Digital Stewardship Digital preservation = quid pro quo service Metadata Formats Money

15 3Rs of Digital Stewardship Metadata Metadata automates preservation administration, file and object validation, and data processing. Standards, best practices and tools emerging around XML.

16 3Rs of Digital Stewardship Lots of required metadata Identification and discovery (descriptive) Impossible to preserve what you dont know that you have Impossible to sustain use for items that cannot be identified Co-location, organization (structural) Encoding of relationships facilitates management, use Governance (administrative) Ownership, rights of access, provenance Preservation (technical) Format attributes for validation and to anchor transformations Documentation of significant properties and preservation intention to inform preservation strategy(ies)

17 3Rs of Digital Stewardship Metadata containers (example: still images) Directory and file names File headers TIFF, JP2 XML XMP (e.g., within JP2), EXIF, NISO MIX, METS Database tables Printed manifests, reports

18 3Rs of Digital Stewardship Formats The concept of digital representation format permeates all technical areas of digital repository architecture and operation. Policy and processing decisions regarding ingest, storage, access, and preservation are frequently, if not uniformly, conditioned on a format-specific basis. Abrams and Seaman, 2003

19 3Rs of Digital Stewardship Attributes of normative formats for preservation masters Open – with widely available tools for encoding and decoding Inherently flexible – processible to generate many (user-preferred) renderings, ideally in automated fashion


21 3Rs of Digital Stewardship Format standard one of many (e.g., still image) Standards Notes Archival OAIS (ISO 14721:2002) Reference model, SystemRLG-NARA TRAC Trust criteria/audting, ANSI/NAPM IT9.21 and 23 Electronic media Image TIFF (Adobe standard) Global Digital Format FormatsJPEG 2000 (ISO/IEC Registry in develop- 15444-1:2000) ment (DLF initiative) ImageNISO Z39.87-2002 Technical metadata MetadataMETS (DLF initiative) for preservation

22 3Rs of Digital Stewardship 3. Roles … it takes a village to provide stewardship Rights holders Entities controlling scope of preservation, dissemination Collection managers Content owners or designees; proxies for users Preservation professionals Repository team Centers of expertise (industry and research associates) - develop standards, practices, research agendas (DCC, DPC)DCCDPC Auditors Designated communities Content users or advocates

23 3Rs of Digital Stewardship Organisation to Engage & Collaborate Industry research collaborators standards bodies testbeds & tools communities of practice: users community support & outreach research development co-ordination service definition & delivery management & admin support Associates Network curation organisations eg DPC a centre of expertise in data curation and preservation OCLC October 2006

24 3Rs of Digital Stewardship Reciprocal responsibilities at Harvard Collection managers Digital stewardship: Cooperate with DRS staff in exercising appropriate digital stewardship Intellectual property rights: Manage legal rights necessary for DRS services, including rights to make one or more faithful copies of objects for backup purposes, the right to make derivative copies, and the right for public redistribution. Metadata: Provide appropriate administrative, technical, and structural metadata about their objects. Discovery: Ensure that descriptions of their objects are publicly available in online discovery systems. Access: Ensure that access to a version of their objects' content is available to members of the Harvard community. Financial considerations: Arrange payment for DRS service HUL DRS Policy Guide

25 3Rs of Digital Stewardship Reciprocal responsibilities at Harvard DRS (staff) Digital stewardship: Cooperate with collection managers in exercising appropriate digital stewardship. Preservation of usability: Preserve the usability of stored objects over time. Delivery services: Deliver content to desktop client applications via standard web protocols. Professionalism and sustainability: Manage DRS in a manner that is administratively, financially, and technically sustainable. Responsiveness and transparency: Be responsive to the needs and concerns of the collection manager community and conduct DRS policy setting and planning activities in an open and transparent manner. HUL DRS Policy Guide

26 3Rs of Digital Stewardship Summary observations Preservation repositories are safe harbors Digital preservation depends and relies upon extensive, well-managed metadata Lifecycle management is a collective enterprise Stewardship and digital preservation require active oversight of content, technologies, and user expectations Business models are needed to capitalize new infrastructure and to sustain content over time

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