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Public Relations.

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Presentation on theme: "Public Relations."— Presentation transcript:

1 Public Relations

2 Early Development in PR
P.T. Barnum

3 Early Development in PR
Buffalo Bill

4 JUMBO Jumbo photo:


6 http://www. roadsideamerica. com/pet/jumbo. html http://www

7 JUMBO DIES Dead jumbo:

Jumbostuffed: Jumbo skeleton:

9 Tufts Jumbo Jumbostuffed: Jumbo skeleton:

10 U.S. RAILWAYS Old train: Poster:

11 Early Development in PR
Modern PR Agents “Poison Ivy” Lee had John D. Rockefeller as a client (Ivy Ledbetter Lee) Rockefeller:

12 Early Development in PR
Modern PR Agents Standard Oil/Ludlow Colorado Terrible working conditions Ida Tarbell/Standard Oil/McClure’s Workers went on strike Ludlow massacre “Poison Ivy” Lee was hired to “repair” Rockefeller’s image Ivy Lee discovered he could shape facts to tell whatever he wanted to say, and people would believe him. Facts are malleable and can be interpreted Rockefeller:

13 “Ivy Lee would have probably shared the mantle of ‘Father of Public Relations’ with Edward Bernays if he hadn’t made the fatal career mistake of going to work with the Nazis, and then dying before he could clean up his own image.” --John Stauber

14 Early Development in PR
Modern PR Agents Edward Bernays Freud’s nephew “Father of public relations” Bernays:

15 Early Development in PR
Bernays Worked for Government CBS (Option time) American tobacco industry “Torches of freedom” Torches of freedom:

16 Lucky Strikes Organized “Green Ball” Luncheon for fashion editors
“new green fashions for fall” Convinced historians & psychologists to talk about green Organized “Color Fashion Bureau” Wrote to interior decorators, department stores, art industry group about “new trend” (on green paper) Got dept. stores to display green dresses in windows Got an established gallery to feature a “Green” painting exhibition.

17 Green became the color of the 1934 season Ivory Soap: soap carving contest United Fruit Company

18 United Fruit=“banana republic”
Paid off governments/brutally exploited Guatemalans When reformist Gov. attempted to reign in United Fruit’s power, called in Bernays Bernays created a successful PR campaign that led to the CIA’s overthrow of a democratically elected government

19 Pseudo-events -- the manufacturing of news

20 The Practice of PR In 1988, the PRSA defined PR: “Public relations helps an organization and its publics adapt mutually to each other.”

21 PRSA Ethics Code (in textbook)

22 Survey in 2000 by PR Week Surveyed 1,705 PR professionals:
25% admit to lying on the job 39% say they had exaggerated the truth 44% are uncertain of the ethics of a task they are required to perform 60% say their work has been compromised by being told to lie.

23 The Practice of PR Major PR Agencies In-house Services
Weber Shandwick Worldwide (Interpublic) Fleishman-Hillard (Omnicom) Hill and Knowlton (WPP Group) Burson-Marsteller (WPP Group) Incepta (Incepta Group) Edelman PR Worldwide (Independent) Porter Novelli (Omnicom) Ketchum (Omnicom) GCI Group/APCO Worldwide (WPP Group) Ogilvy PR Worldwide (WPP Group) In-house Services

24 Ex. Ketchum According to the U.S. House Committee on Government Reform Minority Office, Ketchum received the following amounts per year, for federal PR contracts: * $1,692,000 in 1999 * $2,552,000 in 2000 * $3,657,000 in 2001 * $2,563,000 in 2002 * $31,163,457 in 2003 * $58,895,846 in 2004 (

25 Doing Public Relations
Six main functions Writing and editing press releases VNRs PSAs Internet materials brochures, etc.

26 Ketchum scandal on No Child Left Behind
$700,000  Did a “rankings analysis” to see which reporters covered the story (pos. or neg.)  Produced a VNR supporting the law featured Education Secretary Rod Paige paid journalist/conservative columnist Armstrong Williams $241,000 Narrated by fake reporter Karen Ryan (a PR pro)

27 Doing Public Relations
Six main functions Writing and editing Media Relations promote a client or organization by securing favorable news media coverage e.g. Heisman trophy

28 Doing Public Relations
Six main functions Writing and editing Media Relations Special Events pseudo-event refers to any circumstance created to obtain coverage in the media (publicity stunt)




32 Doing Public Relations
Six main functions Writing and editing Media Relations Special Events Research Research the way the company is perceived by the public Focus groups

33 Doing Public Relations
Six main functions Writing and editing Media Relations Special Events Research Community and consumer relations Create positive image for company Rockefeller and dimes e.g., American Express, Applebees

34 American Express Applebees Statue of Liberty Renovation
Raised $1.7 million Spent $6 million promoting it Save Our Strength hunger campaign Applebees The “Neighborhood Wall”

35 Doing Public Relations
Six main functions Writing and editing Media Relations Special Events Research Community and consumer relations Government relations and lobbying

36 Organizations lobby against industry regulation
EX: NAB: National Association of Broadcasters NRA Fast Food Automobile Industry Meatpacking industry

37 “Astroturf Lobbying”

38 Lobbying for entire governments e.g.:
Qorvis: Saudi Arabia Burston Marsteller: Indonesia, El Salvador, Nigeria Hill and Knowlton: Kuwait

39 “congressional human right caucus”
1990:Iraq invaded Kuwait Drum up American support “congressional human right caucus” girl testified about the horrors of Iraqi invasion…babies on bayonets She was the daughter of the Kuwaiti Ambassador (and lived in the U.S.)

40 Tensions between PR and the Press
Pay issues Undermining facts and blocking access (“flack”) Promoting publicity and business as news

41 Social Responsibility
Case of The Gap -- proactive transparency. May 2004, releases first-ever corporate report on social responsibility.

42 Cause-Related Marketing
Case of Timberland Also American Express, Ford, Nike, Procter & Gamble, Starbucks, and Target

43 Crisis Management Bridgestone/Firestone and Ford, 2001
Odwalla Fruit Juices, 1996 Exxon 1989 Valdez oil spill Johnson & Johnson, 1982 Tylenol poisoning

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