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Processes and Manufacture

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Presentation on theme: "Processes and Manufacture"— Presentation transcript:

1 Focus: The ways in which textile products are manufactured in industry.

2 Processes and Manufacture
Content The production systems and their processes. The range of hand tools, equipment and machines used in textile production. CAD/CAM Production Flowcharts Quality Control and Quality Assurance

3 The production systems and their processes
There are three main types of production system. One-off Batch Mass Objectives Understand what is meant by one-off, batch, and mass production. Understand line production and subassembly systems Consider cost implications when selecting method of production

4 One-off One-off production is designing and making a single textile product to a client's specification. The garment design is developed from a basic block pattern, with a prototype made from inexpensive fabric to test the drape, fit and assembly of the garment.

5 One-off Haute-couture fashion: models at London Fashion Week Task
Look in magazines and cut out pictures to make a collection of designer outfits from catwalk shows. Why are these garments made by one-off production? How much do these clothes and accessories cost to buy?

6 Batch Production Batch production is manufacturing set quantities of a textile product to order. The prototype is made up in a medium size from the intended fabric. The prototype is checked for quality of design and manufacture, then put into production in a range of standard sizes. The quantity of products can vary from a set of four cushions made by a designer-maker, to 20,000 jumpers made for a department store.

7 Mass production Mass production is industrial-scale manufacture of large quantities of products, usually on a production line. Mass production is suitable for products that seldom need to be redesigned and are needed in very large numbers, eg socks or jeans.

8 One-off Batch production Mass production Production system
Product market Design and production Skill level and cost One-off Made-to-measure, eg suit, wedding dress; Made-to-measure garments are made to fit the measurements of an individual client; the garment design is developed from a basic block pattern and a toile is made to test the fabric drape, the fit and order of assembly Very high-level skills in design and manufacture; high-cost materials; high labour costs Haute Couture, eg made by fashion houses Fashion designers such as John Galliano design Haute Couture garments for individual clients Very high-level skills in design and manufacture; high-cost material and labour costs Batch production Ready-to-wear (RTW) designer label, eg Designers at Debenhams Garments are designed to fit a range of standard sizes and shapes. Garment patterns are developed from a basic block using CAD. A sample garment is made up in a medium size, from the intended fabric. Once the design has been approved it is put into production in a range of standard sizes. They are sold through up-market retailers. High-level design, pattern making and sampling skills; cost-effective materials and lower manufacturing costs Mass production Mass-market retailers, eg Top Shop Similar production methods to batch production: garments produced in limited range of sizes; standardised production methods are used to produce a wide range of styles. Most fashion products are batch produced in large batches eg 20,000. Some classic products like jeans are mass produced for a world market. High-level design, pattern making and sampling skills; cost-effective materials; products often made overseas where labour costs are low

9 Systems and sub-systems
In a production system, a number of different designing and manufacturing processes or sub-systems take place at the same time. Examples of sub-systems are: Lay-planning is the laying out of pattern pieces of a fabric to work out the quantity and cost of material required for a product. Costing is working out how much each product costs in terms of including materials, labour, rent and energy costs.

10 Just-in-time stock control (JIT)
This is a cost effective method of ordering components and sub-assemblies to arrive just before they are needed. Stock storage time is reduced but any mistakes and deliveries will hold production up. Summary Hand-crafted, exclusive products are made individually using the one-off production system. For a fixed number of identical products, batch production is cost effective. Mass production usually includes production lines Subassemblies are made separately before they are joined to the main product.

11 The range of hand tools, equipment and machines used in textile production.
Plotter/Cutting machines Computers are used for producing Lay plans which work out exactly where to place each pattern piece to best use the fabric. Remember wasted fabric is wasted money! A plotter would mark out the pattern pieces and any construction instructions such as darts. A CAM cutting machine automatically cuts out the pieces following the lay plan. It cuts the fabric quickly and accurately using vertical knives, high pressure water jets or lasers. Many layers can be cut out at once which means less labour costs and more efficiency A Band saw can be used by a skilled operator. It is used for cutting through multiple layers of fabric quickly. Metal chain mail gloves are worn to protect the workers hands. Objectives Have an understanding of the variety of machines used in textile manufacture Appreciate the difference between sewing and the embroidery machines.

12 Sewing machines. · Lockstitch –Used for sewing seams (Straight stitch)
These range from simple machines to ones that do specialist tasks such as buttonholes, overlocking fabric edges or CAD CAM machines that stitch out motifs · Lockstitch –Used for sewing seams (Straight stitch) · Over locker—Stitches, cuts and finishes seams in one process · Seam cover—Used for sewing belt loops · Automatic buttonhole—Used for sewing buttonholes · CAD/CAM—Multihead embroidery machine

13 Hand tools and equipment
Tools & equipment for Designing, colouring and embellishing Measuring and marking Cutting Heating and pressing Identify and make a list of all the tools and equipment in your textiles classroom Summary Appropriate tools and equipment should be selected, used correctly and safely, and stored in the designated place. A wide variety of tools and equipment are required when designing and making Efficient and accurate use of tools and equipment will help ensure that high-quality products are made.

14 Industrial Machinery Below are some of the main types of machines used in the manufacture of textile products. Machinery can be operated by hand, be semi-automatic fully automatic and can also be computer controlled Digital jet printer Knitting machine Band saw Multi-head embroidery machine Objectives Have an understanding of the variety of machines used in textile manufacture Appreciate the difference between sewing and the embroidery machines.

15 Summary Industrial sewing machines
In industry a range of different sewing machines are used for stitching seams, embroidery, buttonholes etc. The main ones are listed in the table below: Industrial machine Method of control Joining process Used for Lockstitch Electric Straight seams Zigzag stitch Stretchy knits; finishing edges Overlocker Stitches, cuts and finishes seams in one process Non-fraying seams; stretchy seams Seamcover Flat seam Knitted hems; belt loops on jeans Linking Electronic; CAM Joins knitted fabric stitch by stitch Knitted seams Automatic buttonhole Lockstitch; chainstitch Buttonholes Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) Computer software; Electronic; CAM Lockstitch; zigzag; embroidery Making collars; labels; logos; embroidery Summary Machines speed up the process of making and can be used to ensure high-quality products Many machines have fast moving parts and sharp needles. Great care must be taken to follow safety rules to avoid injury while operating such a machine. Machinery can be operated by hand, semi-automatic or fully automatic and can also be computer controlled.

Computers are used by designers for: Writing documents and creating display boards, including artwork, text, spreadsheets, graphs and tables Putting together slide show presentations Digital photography and video making Designing and sampling Supplementing drawing and colouring with use of specialist fashion software, e.g. Speed Step. Objectives Understand the benefits of using computers in manufacturing. Appreciate the link between CAD & CAM

These include: Microsoft Office - Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Publisher Drawing packages – Paint, Adobe illustrator, CorelDraw Image editing – Photoshop Specialist Fashion software, e.g. Speed Step

Drawing software can be used to design, illustrate and show working drawings. Drawn lines and shapes or photographic images can be imported and edited, or scanned to manipulate and develop ideas. Collections with a range of coordinating products can be developed from one initial idea. With some specialist software it is possible to get a 3D impression of the design by rotating the design and seeing it from different viewpoints. The designer can use the computer to simulate draping and shadowing to create a realistic image of the design. Also, ideas for different colourways can be tested and a variety of printed, knitted or woven fabric designs can be trialled on screen, to see the effect of each different combination of colour and texture.

The designer can present ideas to the client on screen or printed on to presentation boards, or via , and then quickly modify them according to client feedback. Promotional material developed from design work can be adapted for use on websites, business stationery and advertising and marketing materials, such as point of sale literature and display posters. Computers make this development of related design work a quicker process

Computers can be used to pass detailed design information to machinery quickly so that samples can be made during the design and development stages, often without the designers even leaving their workstations. Designers can use computers to design new woven or knitted fabrics on screen and then show the new fabric in use on a drawn model, on screen or on printed copy. Printed fabric design developed on screen can be digitally printed on to actual fabric for sampling. Embroidered motifs and patterns can be designed on the computer and then stitched directly onto fabric. A design process that previously took weeks or months can now take less than 24hrs. The images on colour monitors and those reproduced by colour printers are so realistic that they can be used to present ideas to fashion buyers. In the past buyers have demanded to see and touch actual sample garments, before deciding to place orders, but with the new computer technology they now have the confidence to buy from screened or printed presentations.

21 ICT and CAM ICT and computer-aided manufacture (CAM)
ICT and CAM play a vital role in modern textiles production. For example, they enable : designs to be sent electronically to the print manufacturer and stored on computer to ease repeat printing orders. colours to be matched to the design, dyes weighed and dispensed and the fabric printed automatically ICT makes possible the just-in-time ordering of materials and components so they arrive at the factory as they are needed, ie just-in-time for production to start. ICT enables companies to transmit information between plants, and manufacture on a global scale Objectives Understand the benefits of using computers in manufacturing. Appreciate the link between CAD & CAM

22 Mass-produced clothing: jeans in a clothes shop window
Summary Computers can be used to increase efficiency and accuracy in manufacturing Costs can be reduced if efficiency is increased Health and safety of workers can be monitored and working conditions made safer using computers Flexibility is increased as changes in production can be made more rapidly

23 CNC Computer-numerical control
Computer-aided manufacturing involves the use of CNC machines for printing, cutting, joining and many other textiles processes. CNC-automated machines can repeat processes with accuracy and reliability, and are easily re-programmed when changes to design or production run are needed. The graphic shows some of the uses of CNC machines.

24 CIM Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) systems integrate or link CAD and CAM systems. These combined systems link design development, production planning and manufacturing systems together. Companies that use CIM are able to design a product in one country and manufacture it overseas where labour costs are lower.

25 Exam Tips Make sure that you understand the different roles of clients, designers, manufacturers and users. You need to know what a production plan and work schedule are - and the difference between them. Make sure that you know the difference between one-off, batch and mass production.

26 Production Plan Production planning
Production plans and work schedules are important planning tools in batch and mass production. The production plan should set out information about all the stages of production, so that every product is made to the same quality. See example below:

27 Each production plan should include the following stages:
The preparation stage details the amount of materials to buy-in, preparation of garment patterns, templates and lay plans. The processing stage details the fabric spreading, cutting, labelling and bundling of the fabric pieces. The assembly stage contains instructions for fusing, joining and pressing the separate product parts. The finishing stage gives instructions for decorative/functional finishing and final pressing. The packaging stage explains how to label, hang, fold, and cover the product ready for transport to the retailer. Some manufacturers use computer software to handle the detailed information in the production plan. Any changes made to the plan are quickly available to each member of the production team

28 Work schedule A work schedule sets out instructions about the order of assembly, the stitch type, the processes to be used, the time each process will take and the seam allowance. See the example of a work schedule below:

29 Work schedule below for a skirt
Order of assembly Stitch type Process Process time in minutes Seam allowance 1 Lockstitch Stitch pockets 2.00 1.00cm 2 Stitch pockets to front 3 Overlock Join back seam 1.00 4 Insert zip 0.20cm 5 Join side seams 1.50 6 Join waistband to top 2.50 0.60cm 7 Blind hemming Turn up hem N/A Total process time 12.50

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