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1 EXAMINING THE POTENTIAL OF USING SPRING WATERS FOR DOMESTIC AND IRRIGATION FARMING ACTIVITIES: CASE STUDY OF LIWONDE, MALAWI. A Russel C.G. Chidya (MSc) Prof Wapulumuka O. Mulwafu Ass Prof Samson S.M.I Sajidu A Corresponding author: E-mail: University of Malawi – Chancellor College Date: 31 st Oct – 2 nd Nov 2012 13 th WaterNet/WARSFSA/GWP-SA International Symposium on IWRM 1 NEPAD SANWATCE AMCOW

2 Presentation Outline 2 NEPAD SANWATCE 1.Introduction & Literature Review 2.Aim and Objectives 3.Methods and Materials 4.Results & Discussion 5.Conclusion & Recommendations 6.Acknowledgements

3 1. Introduction & Literature review 3 NEPAD SANWATCE Water is a finite natural resource essential for the well being of mankind (GWP, 2010). Important water sources: a.surface water i.e. springs, streams and rivers ponds, lakes &seas. b.ground water i.e.: located in aquifers – related to wells, boreholes &springs In Malawi, existence of rivers, springs, L. Malawi, L. Chilwa and other smaller lakes provide fresh water resources. However, climate variability, poor agricultural practices, poor waste disposal, poor water use and poor management of catchment areas etc pose daunting challenges which could result in quality & access to water resources being strained in the near future (Kass et al, 2005; GWP, 2010).

4 Intrd cont.../... 4 NEPAD SANWATCE Springs are an important source of water for various purposes i.e. domestic, irrigation, & fishing ( Spechler &Schiffer, 1995; WHO, 2008 ). Previous studies by UNEP & GPF showed that Liwonde is one the areas in Malawi that have both hot and cold spring water sources. However, there is no established data on the exact location & capacity of these springs. No attempt has been made to assess the socio-economic use, management & governance systems of these springs. Further, no data is available on the physico-chemical characteristics of the spring waters and their implications for domestic and irrigation use.

5 2. Aim & specific objectives 5 NEPAD SANWATCE Main Aim: To examine the potential of using cold and hot spring waters for domestic and irrigation farming activities in Liwonde, Malawi. Specific Objectives 1.To assess the socio-economic use and governance systems of spring water resources. 2.To study the physico-chemical characteristics of spring water resources and their implications for domestic and irrigation use. 3.To examine the water discharge and capacity of springs to support large-scale domestic and irrigational farming activities.

6 3. Methods & Materials 6 3.1 Description of the study area – Liwonde Situated in Southern Malawi & lies at 470 – 531 m above sea level. experiences tropical climate, &receives a relatively low rainfall. Is one of the hottest areas (mean max T of 39 °C). Lies in Shire R plain & is partly surrounded by Mts. Fig 1A: Map of Africa & Malawi showing location of Study Area SW1 N SW10 Liwonde Township To Lilongwe From Blantyre SW2 SW3 SW4 SW11 SW12 SW5 SW6 SW7 SW8 SW9 SHIRE RIVER Mts Fig 1B: Location of sampling sites

7 7 NEPAD SANWATCE 13 Hot & cold springs were identified, most connected to boreholes. 3.2 Water sample collection Borehole Spring water flow thru borehole Aquifer system Fig 2: Schematic diagram of a borehole connected to a spring Water samples collected in triplicate using 0.5 L cleaned plastic bottles; transported &preserved in accordance with std methods (APHA, 1998; WII, 2008). Fig 3: A hot spring in Liwonde

8 3.3 Physico-chemical & discharge analyses 8 NEPAD SANWATCE Table 1: Water Quality parameters & analytical methods used ParameterSiteMethod pH, water T, EC, & TDSOn siteField digital meters Alkalinity, ( as CO 3 2- &HCO 3 - )LABTitration (WII, 2008) Total hardness ( due to Ca 2+ & Mg 2+ ) LABEDTA titrimetric (APHA, 1998; WHO, 1999). Cl-Cl- LABISE method (APHA, 1998; NICO, 2000) SO 4 2- LABTurbidmetric (UV/Vis spectrophotometer, model #. 6405, England ) PO 4 3- LABVanadomolybdophosphoric acid Colorimetric (UV/Vis, model #. 6405, England) Ca, Mg, K, Na, Cd, Zn, Cu, & MnLAB AES (Agilent 4100 MP-AES, USA) Discharge of springs flowing through boreholes On-siteVolumetric method with a bucket at an average height of about 70 cm.

9 9 NEPAD SANWATCE 3.4 Irrigational water quality indices The following equations were used to determine: SAR, %Na, MHR, & RSC (Bauder et al., 2008): - - - - - - - - - - [1] - - - - - - - - - - [2] - - - - - - - - - - [3] - - - - - - - - - - [4]

10 3.5 Socio-economic data collection 10 NEPAD SANWATCE The socio-economic activities making use of springs in the study area investigated thru: Field visits, Observations, key informant interviews literature review 3.6 Statistical Analysis Social-economic data evaluated by repeated reading &content analysis. Water quality &discharge data analysed by Microsoft Excel (Windows 2007) to compute means, standard deviations & Pearson Correlation C (2-tailed at 95%)

11 4. Results & Discussion 11 NEPAD SANWATCE Fig 4 (A, B, C): Pictures showing spring flow through boreholes in Liwonde. (Photos: Russel Chidya) 4.1 The socio-economic activities and spring water management 12 cold & hot springs identified & most (75%, n=12) were associated with boreholes.

12 Results & Discussion contd 12 Preliminary results revealed that spring waters in the area are used for: 1.domestic purposes. i.e. washing, bathing, cooking & drinking. 2.small-scale subsistence &commercial farming (vegetables, rice, sugarcane, & maize). 3.moulding of bricks, ponds Fig 5: Pictures showing multiple uses of spring waters. (Photos: Russel Chidya)

13 NEPAD SANWATCE13 Watering of nursery & tree seedlings Growing of vegetables Fig 6: Photos showing multiple use of springs waters. (photos: R Chidya)

14 Results & Discussion contd 14 NEPAD SANWATCE Major problems observed Congestion (>300 households) Poor management Lack of maintenance Poor Sanitation (photo by Russel Chidya) ANY POSSIBLE INTERVENTION? Integrated approach in spring water usage and management, hence IWRM i.e. to address: o Hygiene & Sanitation o Water quality & quantity o Access to water ANY POSSIBLE INTERVENTION? Integrated approach in spring water usage and management, hence IWRM i.e. to address: o Hygiene & Sanitation o Water quality & quantity o Access to water

15 4.2 Physico-chemical characteristics 15 NEPAD SANWATCE WHO limit (6.5 – 8.5) Spring waters slightly basic; pH range 7.7 – 9.1 Most sites (67%, n=12) registered pH > upper WHO (2008) limit, hence deemed not suitable for consumption Both EC &TDS were within MBS (2005) limit (EC 700 – 1500 (µS/cm). However, springs near Shire R showed slightly higher EC & TDS, hence depict high ionisation and dissolution of minerals.

16 4.2 Physico-chemical characteristics... contd 16 NEPAD SANWATCE Site Turbidity (FNU) T (ºC) Discharge (cm 3 /s) CO 3 2- (mg/L) HCO 3 - (mg/L) SO 4 2- (mg/L) PO 4 3- (mg/L) Cl - (mg/L) SW1 0.1827.73296.8813.8 329.22 32.36bdl72.44 SW2 0.1329.00309.3314.32 225.58 36.85bdl117.35 SW3 0.1428.33 824.08 16.88 250.04 32.930.33 191.36 SW4 0.0927.00296.8812.36 332.98 26.09bdl135.48 SW5 0.1228.47 433.94 48.04165.1533.88bdl103.40 SW6 1.06 38.00 Nd42.8175.6025.920.33105.87 SW7 0.2526.40134.1241.24177.0639.620.67129.56 SW8 1.3030.33Nd42.76172.9137.721.17120.92 SW9 0.2625.8029.4126.28180.1532.61bdl77.99 SW10 0.24 39.70 Nd25.44151.85115.80bdl19.52 SW11 12.8341.33 Nd27.12145.0084.951.6762.08 SW12 10.5840.33 Nd26.68146.8988.911.17112.41 MBS (2005) 5.0NA 200- 400 NA100-200 WHO (2008) 0.1-1.0NA 500*NA250 T: water temperature. Nd: not determined. bdl: below detection level. MBS: Malawi Bureau of standards. WHO: World Health Organisation. NA: not available. Nh: not of health concern at levels found in drinking water. *taste threshold value Table 2: Results on physico-chemical characteristics of the spring water

17 Results & Discussion – contd 17 NEPAD SANWATCE Based on WHO (2008) hardness classification, all samples registered soft class (0-70 mg/L CaCO 3 ). SO 4 2-, Cl -, Mg, Ca, Na, Cu, & Mn were below WHO (2008) limits at all sites, hence water generally safe for domestic use. However, due to presence of Cd & relatively high levels of Na at some sites, further water quality studies needed to justify this claim. Suitability of water for irrigation: Based on SAR, 4 sites fell under excellent S1 class (0-10); 2 sites registered good (SAR 10-18), 1 site doubtful (SAR 18-26) and 5 sitesunsuitable classes (SAR>26). But, based on RSC & %Na by Bauder et al., (2008) all sites were unsuitable for irrigation due to elevated CO 3 2-, HCO 3 - and Na + ions that tend to affect irrigable soil properties.

18 This study has shown that the springs have both socio- economic value and capacity to support large-scale farming & domestic use. However, major challenges faced include poor sanitation, governance & management systems. Further, water quality analyses indicated that some springs are of poor quality. RECOMMENDATIONS & FURTHER STUDIES Integrated approaches (i.e. IWRM) are needed for sustainable use, governance &proper management of the springs. Further studies are needed on hydrology and aquifer systems of the area, microbiological tests & human health; & soil analysis for sustainable farming. 5. Conclusion 18 NEPAD SANWATCE

19 6. Acknowledgements 19 NEPAD SANWATCE Authors would like to express their sincerely gratitude to the following: NEPAD SANWATCE– for sponsorship towards the students expenses to attend the conference. SADC WaterNet-Malawi Chapter for partially sponsoring the research study. 13 th WaterNet/WARFSA/GWP-SA Secretariat for accepting our abstract & manuscript Department of Chemistry – Chancellor College (University of Malawi) – for provision of lab space

20 THE END THANK YOU!! ZIKOMO 20 NEPAD SANWATCE Let there be work, bread, water & salt for all -Nelson Mandela- (Adapted from: Water, Energy & Development 2012 by ESKOM)


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