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GROUNDWATER. Groundwater The Hydrologic Cycle Groundwater.

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Presentation on theme: "GROUNDWATER. Groundwater The Hydrologic Cycle Groundwater."— Presentation transcript:


2 Groundwater The Hydrologic Cycle

3 Groundwater

4 Groundwater Phreatic zone Vadose zone porosity

5 Groundwater Phreatic zone

6 Groundwater Porosity vs. Permeability: Porosity – the amount of water a rock can hold Porosity – the amount of water a rock can hold Permeability – the amount of water that can move through a rock in a given amount of time Permeability – the amount of water that can move through a rock in a given amount of time Which is more important?

7 Groundwater What is an aquifer? a layer of rock from which water can be easily extracted A layer of rock through which water does not move readily is called an aquitard or aquiclude

8 Groundwater An unconfined aquifer

9 Groundwater A confined (artesian) system

10 Groundwater How fast does groundwater move? Between: 1 meter/day, and 1 meter/year On average, ~ 10 cm/day What are the consequences of this slow movement?

11 Groundwater Artificial recharge ponds, N. California

12 Groundwater How does groundwater erode? Solution channels in limestone, England Groundwater can only erode by dissolution, usually helped by carbonic acid. Limestones are particularly susceptible

13 Groundwater An area dominated by groundwater erosion is called karst topography

14 Groundwater Evolution of cave system

15 Groundwater Satellite image of a karst terrain

16 Groundwater Areceibo, Puerto Rico – SETI radio antenna

17 Groundwater Sinkholes

18 Groundwater Winter Park, FL

19 Groundwater

20 Groundwater Sinkhole swallows 2 cars, St. Louis, November 26, 2007

21 Groundwater Karst towers, China

22 Groundwater The Stone Forest, China

23 Groundwater Infilled sinkholes

24 Groundwater Red paleosols (Molas Fm) in Leadville Ls, Molas Lake

25 Groundwater How does groundwater transport its sediment? Only one way, in solution. This is what makes hard water, but dissolved load typically only in parts per million (ppm)

26 Groundwater How does groundwater deposit its sediment? By precipitation. This may occur within pore spaces, helping lithify sediments, or in open spaces as dripstone

27 Groundwater

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30 Groundwater

31 Groundwater Gypsum stalactites, Lechuguilla, NM

32 Groundwater Calcite cement in sandstone

33 Groundwater SiO 2 carried by groundwater replaces trees

34 Groundwater Types of groundwater: meteoric meteoric connate connate magmatic magmatic Any of the above may also be hydrothermal water

35 Groundwater

36 Groundwater

37 Groundwater

38 Groundwater Issues with groundwater use: Pros: agricultural, industrial, & agricultural, industrial, & domestic water geothermal energy geothermal energy natural filtration natural filtration Cons: ground subsidence ground subsidence depletion depletion pollution pollution salt water encroachment salt water encroachment

39 Groundwater Groundwater use by state

40 Groundwater Geothermal test well, Nevada

41 Groundwater

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43 Groundwater Subsidence due to groundwater extraction, Mexico City

44 Groundwater Subsidence due to groundwater extraction, San Joaquin Valley, CA

45 Groundwater Salt water encroachment

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