Presentation on theme: "Hugo Fernando Palacios González. Introduction Hydrologic resources in Mexico 780 mm of pluvial precipitation (1 532 million m3) Superficial runoffs of."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction Hydrologic resources in Mexico 780 mm of pluvial precipitation (1 532 million m3) Superficial runoffs of an annual average volume of 410,164 million m3. Runoffs distributed in 320 drainage basins Some of the most important rivers: Yaqui, Lerma- Santiago, Balsas, Bravo, Pánuco, Grijalva, Usumacinta.
Water distribution problem- 80% of hydrological resources under 500 m (over sea level). 70% of total population over this level, 80% of industrial activity as well. 55% of industrial activity is developed in the valley of Mexico at more than 2000 m over sea level.
Water Quality 3 main pollution sources classified as follows: Social sector. Mexico 23%, Monterrey 4.1%, Guadalajara 4%. Only 50% of the population has sewerage infrastructure. Industrial sector. Generates 43% of waste water in the country. Agricultural sector. 92 500 million m3 are used in this sector. Produces 12% of waste water. Water with high levels of particles in eutrophication state.
Waste Water Treatment 361 municipal WWT plants. Installed capacity of 25 m3/s. (Unfortunately they only have capacity to treat 24%) 282 industrial WWT plants. Capacity of 20 m3/s. (Only treats 25%) Its been estimated that only 50% of these plants operate regularly
Theres an index of water quality used by scientists to classify treated water. Its known as the ICARen (Índice de Calidad de Agua Renovada) which would literally mean Quality Index of Renewed Water ICARen of 0- drinkable water ICARen >38- useless water
ICarenUses <3Drinkable water 16Industrial: vapor production 22Industrial: Cooling 25Fishing 26Recreation: swimming 26Commerce, Services, industrial processes 27Livestock 28Agriculture 30Municipal, undrinkable 34Agriculture: plantations and vines 35Agriculture: Industrial crops/ Green areas 36Recreation with secondary contact: navigation 38Not recommended for use
Water Purification Stations Conventional treatment methods Basic Physical and chemical procedures, such as decantation, sedimentation and coagulation Elimination of wastes, oils, greases, sand Elimination of inorganic and organic materials by decantation Elimination of biodegradable organic matter Stabilization and disposition of sludge extracted in the processes
Reverse Osmosis Membranes made out of synthetic materials
Coagulation Addition of electrolytes (Alum or Lime) Charged particles of waste water combine with ions neutralizing the charges The neutral particles combine to form greater particles E.G. Ca(OH) 2 -> Ca (aq) 2+ + 2 OH - (causing pH change)
Flocculation Use of starch or multiply charged ions to attract or trap the particles and settle down together. Other salts such as iron sulfates Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 and FeSO 4, chromium sulfate Cr 2 (SO 4 ) 3, and some special polymers are also useful
Sedimentation Used after coagulation and flocculation A settling tank with inlets and outlets is used The settled particles and sludge must be removed Settling tank
Filtration Removal of solids from water, passing them by a porous medium Artificial membranes, nets, sand filter and high technological filter systems
Aeration Main purpose: Oxygenation Removal of volatile organic substances, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia and volatile compounds Diffused aeration- air bubbles through water Spray aeration Multiple tray aeration- water flows through many trays to mix with air Cascade aeration Air stripping- combination of multiple tray and cascade techniques
Bioaugmentation Introduction of a group of natural microbial strains or a genetically engineered variant KB-1 Dechlorinator. Used to introduce Dehalococcoides to sites where they are absent
Activated Sludge Atmospheric air or pure oxygen is bubbled through sewage combined with organisms to develop a sludge, which reduces the organic content of sewage.
Industrial Effluent Recycling Clonal poplar as recycling engine Transpiration function driven by weather characteristics Plantation supplied with water according to needs Monitoring of parameters every 10 minutes: 1. Solar radiation 2. Air temperature 3. Air relative humidity 4. Wind speed 5. Rainfall
Parameters monitored by a station equipped with a micrologger (environmental data logger) Data is retrieved and evapotranspiration is calculated for every 10 min. interval These amounts are summed until they reach the amount of a watering (Pre-established based on soil water)
Sewerage Infrastructure Old infrastructural designs Old facilities New Projects: Túnel Emisor Oriente (Mexico city). Interior diameter of 7 meters. Extension of 62 kilometers at more than 200 meters under ground level. Investment of 13 million pesos (19.5 million Kč approximately). Avoid Future floods.
Present Day Problems In the Valley of Mexico only about 6% of their waste water is treated (against legislation) Immediate response to the problem: 1. Permits for the construction of 6 new WWT plants in Mexico city 2. Investment of 37 million pesos (55.4 million Kč approx)
Leading WWT companies ACS Medio Ambiente (Monterrey, NL) Aguas Latinas México S de RL de CV (México, DF) Alianza con la Biosfera (AliBio) (México, DF) Bio-Ingenieria Ingeniería SA de CV (La Paz, BCS)