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Integrated Water Management AIChE December 2011 Meeting

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Presentation on theme: "Integrated Water Management AIChE December 2011 Meeting"— Presentation transcript:

1 Integrated Water Management AIChE December 2011 Meeting
John Barber, Ph.D. Superintendent Waste Disposal Services Dept. Eastman Chemical Company

2 Water Scarcity Increasing worldwide
Previously a developing nation issue Now Spain, Australia, U.K, U.S. Quantity and quality concerns Finite resource

3 World Water Stress World Resources Institute, 2003

4 Disappearing Aral Sea in Central Asia
Aral Sea (central Asia) was once the world’s 4th largest lake; now it is 10% its former size; 138-ft deep at deepest


6 Colorado River -from this to that
The mighty Colorado and Hoover dam; at the U.S.-Mexico border near San Luis

7 South Fork Holston River (8/10/2000)

8 Global Distribution of Water
97.5% Oceans 2.5% Fresh Water 69.5% Glaciers and Permafrost 30.1% Groundwater 0.4% Surface and Atmosphere 77.5% Lakes, Rivers, Wetlands 12.2% Soil Moisture 9.5% Atmosphere

9 “Many of the wars this century were about oil, but those of the next century will be over water.” – Egyptian Ismail Serageldin, senior World Bank official

10 Is water the new oil? T. Boone Pickens thinks so. From oil man to largest individual owner of water – 65 billion gallons/year

11 Water Footprint Concept



14 Water Use in the U.S. 339 billion gallons/day fresh water withdrawn
2X population growth for past 200 years Now 10% less than in 1985, though population grew Conservation? Harder to come by?

15 Water Use in the U.S. 1300 gallon/person/day withdrawn
40% for irrigation (78% in California) 3x average of Europe US Household use = 100 gal/person/day


17 World Water Cost and Consumption
Low cost = waste

18 Water Conservation – the cheapest gallon of water is one that you don’t have to find, treat, and distribute

19 Electric Power in the U.S.
Thermoelectric and Hydroelectric Uses more water than any other single purpose 131 billion gallons/day 3% consumed

20 It takes a lot of water to produce energy It takes a lot of energy to treat water

21 Water – Energy Nexus

22 Energy Intensity of Water Sources

23 “I am convinced that, under present conditions and with the way water is being managed, we will run out of water long before we run out of fuel.” – former CEO of Nestle, Peter Brabeck-Letmathe in The Economist (2008)

24 Adoption of a One Water Paradigm
Institutional Structures Sustainable Integrated Water Management Science & Technology to Produce Clean Water for Reuse Management of Water in the Natural and Built Environment

25 “Silo” Management of Water

26 Integrated Water Management
Reduce demand for freshwater Increase water recycling and reuse Turn stormwater into a water supply asset “Fit for Purpose” – match water quality to end user needs Green Infrastructure – multi-purpose and multi-benefit No distinct classes of water Continual cycle

27 The Water/Energy/Nutrient Nexus of Wastewater

28 Wastewater Resource Recovery Opportunities
WWT Plants become Resource Recovery Plants Implement within existing facilities

29 Example Resource Recovery Center
Primary Revenue Ultrapure water for industry makeup and aquifer recharge Peak electricity sales to grid Primary Clarifier or Filter Low Energy Membrane for BOD and TSS Removal Sewage Food waste, misc. organics Electricity Methane Electricity Generation Nutrient Removal and Recovery Anaerobic Digester CO2 Final Filter Secondary Revenue Irrigation water Fuel savings Inorganic fertilizer Algae Conversion to Biodiesel

30 NPDES National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System

31 Uses for Recycled Water
TREATMENT LEVEL Primary Secondary Tertiary Advanced Processes Sedimentation Biological Oxidation & Disinfection Chem Coagulation, Filtration & Disinfection Activated Carbon, Reverse Osmosis, Advanced Oxidation Processes, etc. End Use None recommended Irrigation of orchard, and non-food crops Landscape and golf course irrigation Indirect potable reuse including recharge of potable aquifer and surface water reservoir augmentation and potable reuse Recharge of non-potable aquifer Toilet flushing and vehicle washing Industrial cooling Food crop irrigation Wetlands and stream augmentation Recreational impoundments

32 Fit for Purpose Water Reclaimed water that has received the most appropriate level of treatment for a specific beneficial reuse


34 Water Reuse in the Food Products Industry
Coca-Cola’s goal  zero water footprint for production Reduce, recycle, replenish Partnership with New United Resource Recovery Corporation (Spartanburg, SC) Move toward total recycle of treated water Product quality, product safety and public health are paramount

35 Conversion of Recycled Bottles to Food Grade Plastic
High-speed auto sort Shred and wash PET Float bath to remove PVC caps and paper labels Initial rinse Chemical treatment and 2nd rinse Auto visual scan to remove non-spec plastic Final rinse and dry

36 Demand and Water Quality Needs
Location/System Demand Required Water Quality Continuous or Intermittent Front End Rinse 50 gpm per train Standard Reuse Continuous Intermediate Rinse 5 gpm per train Potable Final rinse City Water Cooling Tower Irrigation 10 gpm Intermittent Restrooms 2 gpm

37 Physical-Chemical Water Reclamation
Two-pass RO provides potable water quality; standard reuse quality with one-pass RO Centrifuge thickening and plate/frame dewatering

38 Manhattan 125 Maintenance Garage




42 Rainwater and Steam Condensate Harvesting System

43 The Solaire Residential Tower
27-story, 293 units, completed in 2003, Battery Park City

44 Rooftop of The Solaire

45 Wastewater Management at The Solaire
On-site blackwater treatment system recycles 100% of building’s wastewater for use in cooling towers, toilets and landscape irrigation Dual plumbing to accommodate graywater separation Water-efficient fixtures and low-flow toilets Potable water demand reduced 50% by using recycled wastewater

46 Rainwater Management at The Solaire
Water retention layer in rooftop landscaping reduces stormwater velocity and volume Subsurface infiltration basins remove pollutants from rainwater Runoff collected in 10,000-gallon basement storage tank with sediment basin and treatment system Water used for irrigating landscaping and operating the cooling tower

47 Green Infrastructure Rain gardens and rain barrels
Porous concrete and permeable pavement Vegetated swales Green roofs Water harvesting Bioretention and infiltration

48 Green Infrastructure & the Triple Bottom Line


50 The $42 Million “Waterless Toilet” Challenge from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation

51 Barriers to Integrated Water Management
Regulatory constraints Vary from state to state Virginia with ten distinctly different surface water regs Water rights and rain collection (western states) Recycled water and graywater use regulations Dual plumbing Cross-connection potential Plumbing codes and water conservation


53 “When the well’s dry, we know the worth of water.” – Benjamin Franklin

54 Questions?







61 Palmer Drought Severity Index
-4 or less = extreme drought


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