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Presentation on theme: "1 DISINFECTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR SMALL WATER SYSTEMS Silver Falls 24 May 2006."— Presentation transcript:


2 DHS Drinking Water Program 2 Some Presentation Topics (not necessarily in order or complete) Why do we Disinfect? What, When & Where do we disinfect: Chlorine & Other Common Disinfectants Types of Chlorine Chemistry How to disinfect well – e.g. calculating CTs, & How to disinfect a well. Application / Dosages Contact Time v. Residual Cl

3 DHS Drinking Water Program 3 Purpose of Disinfection Inactivation of Pathogens Bacteria – Coliforms, Campylobacter Viruses – Norwalk, Hepatitis A/B Giardia (parasitic protozoa) Cryptosporidium(parasitic protozoa) Regulatory Requirements Residual Maintenance vs. Disinfection Why does your system use disinfectant??

4 DHS Drinking Water Program 4 Common Disinfectants (In order of prevalence) CHLORINE Ultraviolet Light (UV) Ozone (O 3 ) Mixed Oxidants (MIOX) Chloramines (Cl 2 plus ammonia)

5 DHS Drinking Water Program 5 Chlorine Types (All must be NSF approved): Gas:Larger systems, safety concerns, 99.5 % available chlorine Solid:Calcium Hypochlorite (Ca(OCl) 2 ) 15% to 70% available chlorine Liquid: Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl) 5% to 15 % available chlorine Common bleach = 5.25% (Shorter half-life at higher concentrations)

6 DHS Drinking Water Program 6 Chlorine Chemistry Tips Chlorine + Water = Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a strong disinfectant. Depending on water temperature and pH, this acid may disassociate to hypochlorite ion (OCl - ), a less effective disinfectant. (HOCl is eighty times more potent than OCl - ) At pH of 7.5, acid to ion ratio is 50/50 Colder water temps and high pH make disinfection less efficient.

7 DHS Drinking Water Program 7 Relative Amount of Hypochlorous Acid & Hypochlorite Ion

8 DHS Drinking Water Program 8 Effects of pH on Residual Type pH 7.58.5 Free Chlorine 50% OCl - 50% HOCl 90% OCl - 10%HOCl

9 DHS Drinking Water Program 9 Strengths of Residual Chlorine Compounds HOCl OCl - (80x weaker) Chloramines (combined) (60x – 200x weaker) Increasing Strength

10 DHS Drinking Water Program 10 Interfering Agents Iron (Fe) Turbidity Manganese (Mn)

11 DHS Drinking Water Program 11 When to Increase Chlorine Dosage Increase Chlorine Dose When You Have: Increase in: pH Turbidity Fe & Mn Decrease in: Temperature

12 DHS Drinking Water Program 12 Calculating Chlorine Residual Chlorine Dose - Chlorine Demand Chlorine Residual

13 DHS Drinking Water Program 13 Calculating Chlorine Residual (continued) Free Chlorine Residual + Combined Chlorine Residual Total Chlorine Residual

14 DHS Drinking Water Program 14 Breakpoint Chlorination Curve

15 DHS Drinking Water Program 15 Same Breakpoint Curve (with Nitrogen Compounds)

16 DHS Drinking Water Program 16 Disinfection Contact Time v. Residual Maintenance Whats the Difference?? Generally speaking, we require: Disinfection with Contact Time for contaminated Sources. Residual Maintenance for Distribution.

17 DHS Drinking Water Program 17 Chlorine Residual Measure free chlorine residual daily. Must be detectable everywhere at all times. High levels of iron, manganese, or turbidity will increase chlorine demand. Use DPD-type test kit (colorimeter/digital)

18 DHS Drinking Water Program 18 Why Is Residual Maintenance NOT Disinfection? 0.2 ppm Cl residual throughout distribution system Cl

19 DHS Drinking Water Program 19 Why Isnt Residual Maintenance Disinfection? Contamination Point Disinfection requires Contact Time

20 DHS Drinking Water Program 20 Chlorine Applications Continuous Disinfection Must be proportional to flow Shock Disinfection One-time dose Well or reservoir disinfection Repairs

21 DHS Drinking Water Program 21 Common Chlorine Doses 0.2 to 1.0 mg / L in distribution system Max allowable = 4.0 mg / L Using bleach (5.25% chlorine): 1 cup bleach / 100 gal water = 25 ppm 1/3 cup bleach / 1000 gal water = 1 ppm Reservoir cleaning: 10 ppm for 24 hours or 50 ppm for 6 hours

22 DHS Drinking Water Program 22 Well Disinfection - Shock 50 ppm for 24 hours Mix chlorine with water before introducing into well Re-circulate if possible

23 DHS Drinking Water Program 23 Well Disinfection Dose (cont) 6 diameter well = 1.5 gallons / foot of depth Need well depth & static water level (SWL) 2 cups 5% bleach / 100 gallons water = 50 ppm Pump to waste.

24 DHS Drinking Water Program 24 Shock Chlorination Example Well = 200 feet deep; SWL = 120 feet 80 of water in 6 casing = 120 gallons of water in the well Since 2 cups of 5% bleach per 100 gallons of water will produce 50 ppm, use slightly over 2 cups. Flush after 24 hours.

25 DHS Drinking Water Program 25 Disinfection of Storage Tanks May be necessary if sampling indicates Access to tank (sight only, arms length, or physical entry) Tank drainage Where to? Discharge may be regulated Pump out if no drain

26 DHS Drinking Water Program 26 Disinfection Doses for Storage Tanks (per AWWA Std. C652 and OAR 333) 10 ppm for 24 hours (with tank full) 50 ppm for 6 hours 200 ppm sprayed or brushed on interior surfaces of empty tank

27 DHS Drinking Water Program 27 Chlorine Equipment Gas cylinders (and safety equipment) Chemical feed pumps Tablet dispensers / Erosion chlorinators Test kit DPD-type, color wheel or digital Orthotolodine (OTD) method or test strips not acceptable

28 DHS Drinking Water Program 28 Chemical Feed Pumps Positive-displacement type (LMI, BlueWhite) Peristaltic (Stenner) Meter-driven (no electricity)

29 DHS Drinking Water Program 29 LMI Feed Pump

30 DHS Drinking Water Program 30 Wallace & Tiernen Feed Pump

31 DHS Drinking Water Program 31 SCBA

32 DHS Drinking Water Program 32 Proper Storage

33 DHS Drinking Water Program 33 On-site Hypochlorite Generator SALT NaOCl 100%

34 DHS Drinking Water Program 34 Electrocution Chamber

35 DHS Drinking Water Program 35 Disinfection CT Values Definition: CT values are a measurement of the effectiveness of chlorine disinfection against bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. Concentration * Time = C*T

36 DHS Drinking Water Program 36 CT Calculation CT = Cl 2 residual multiplied by contact time CT = [ mg / L ] X [minutes] = a number (no units expressed) Example: 0.2 mg / L times 30 minutes CT = 6

37 DHS Drinking Water Program 37 The Magic Number 6 CT required = 6 30 minutes * 0.2 ppm Cl Assumptions: Water Temperature 10 o C (50 o F)

38 DHS Drinking Water Program 38 Required CT Values GW vs. SW Groundwater – Minimum CT = 6 Adequate for bacteria / virus kill Surface Water – Required CT varies with: pH, temp, and log-inactivation requirement

39 DHS Drinking Water Program 39 Disinfection Contact Time (not to be confused with CT Calculation) Determined by Tracer Study or interim estimate Time = effective volume of contact chamber / flow Time = [minutes] = [gal] / [gpm] Pipe flow is ideal I.e., 100% credit for pipe volume Storage tanks likely have short-circuiting

40 DHS Drinking Water Program 40 How Do You Really Measure Contact Time? T = V / Q 1.Determine peak demand flowrate Does system have an effluent flowmeter? 2.Look at the configuration of system. 3.Make estimate based on tank configuration & length of pipe Assume 10% of tank volume if unknown. 4.Calculate contact time using effective tank volume and effluent flowrate.

41 DHS Drinking Water Program 41 Chlorination Concerns Disinfection by-products (DBPs) THMs and HAA5s DBP production encouraged by: High chlorine levels Long contact time Warm weather High source water TOC

42 DHS Drinking Water Program 42 UV

43 DHS Drinking Water Program 43 Ultraviolet Light Effective non-chemical disinfectant Suitable for small systems with few distribution lines Must meet plan review requirements: Minimum dosage 38 mWsec / cm 2 Intensity monitor Automatic shut-off

44 DHS Drinking Water Program 44 UV Pros & Cons Advantages: No chemicals, therefore no DBPs No contact time required Simple Low operation & maintenance cost Disadvantages: No residual that protects distribution system

45 DHS Drinking Water Program 45 Ozone (O 3 ) Disinfection and taste/odor control Produced by electricity and air or pure O 2 Inactivates Cryptosporidium Must be generated on-site Leaves minimal disinfectant residual Costs 4 times more than conventional disinfection, yet cheapest LT2 option

46 DHS Drinking Water Program 46 Onsite O 3 Generation Liquid O 2

47 DHS Drinking Water Program 47 Demo SS Injection w/ Nozzles

48 DHS Drinking Water Program 48 MIOX Mixed Oxidants – mostly hypochlorite, ozone, and peroxides Produced on-site Requires electricity, rock salt, and water Special equipment needed, difficult for small systems Produces less DBPs

49 DHS Drinking Water Program 49 MIOX Process

50 DHS Drinking Water Program 50 MIOX Salt for Brine Solution

51 DHS Drinking Water Program 51 MIOX Manifold

52 DHS Drinking Water Program 52 PLAN REVIEW Required for ALL disinfection projects. NSF certification Contact regional engineer for specifics If dont know whether PR was done: Ask!

53 DHS Drinking Water Program 53 Questions??? Start Talking.


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