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University of Washington Ballast Water Research Update

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Presentation on theme: "University of Washington Ballast Water Research Update"— Presentation transcript:

1 University of Washington Ballast Water Research Update
Russ Herwig, Jeff Cordell, Dave Lawrence School of Aquatic and Fishery Science, UW Washington Sea Grant December 6, 2007 UW Ballast Water

2 Principal Research Scientist
The current team Jeff Cordell Principal Research Scientist Zooplankton Dave Lawrence Research Scientist Phytoplankton UW Ballast Water

3 Team, continued Olga Kalata Nissa Ferm Research Scientist
zooplankton Nissa Ferm SMA Graduate Student zooplankton UW Ballast Water

4 Major Projects and Collaborations
State of Washington Ballast Sampling Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Allen Pleus, Pam Meacham, Keith Streick, Gary Gertsen Sodium Hypochlorite Ballast Water Treatment Studies Severn Trent De Nora Rudy Matousek Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) - Surrogate Species Project Old Dominion University Fred Dobbs Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Don Anderson Marshall University Andrew Rogerson UW Ballast Water

5 Presentation Outline Preliminary Comments
Different types of ships “Famous” introductions Ballast water exchange State of Washington Ballast Water Sampling Necessity for ballast water treatment Inoculation and propagule pressure Ballast Water Treatment Development and Experiments Proposed and existing discharge standards Technologies “on the table” Scaling up treatment tests Shipboard tests Concluding Remarks UW Ballast Water

6 Cougar Ace, Gulf of Alaska, July 2006
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7 Comment 1 Know your vessel types and voyage patterns.
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8 Russ Herwig UW Ballast Water

9 Russ Herwig UW Ballast Water

10 Russ Herwig UW Ballast Water

11 Other vessel types Container ships Tankers and Tanker Barges
Bryan Nielsen Tankers and Tanker Barges UW Ballast Water

12 Port of Seattle Year Vessel Calls 2002 990 2003 1,012 2004 1,095 2005
1,345 2006 1,301 2006 Vessel Type Number Container 814 Cruise 196 Grain 109 Barge 182 UW Ballast Water

13 Comment 2 Not all invasive species are created equal.
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14 UW Ballast Water

15 UW Ballast Water

16 It’s not just zebra and quagga mussels.
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17 Pseudodiaptomus inopinus
Copepod first appeared in Columbia River, 1990 Found as “monoculture” in many other west coast rivers Displaced native copepods Important in diet of crabs and mysid shrimp Replaced in the Columbia River by two new invasive copepod species Jeff Cordell Native to: Japan, China, Korea UW Ballast Water

18 Pseudodiaptomus forbesi
Native to: Japan, China, Korea First recorded in San Francisco Estuary, 1987 Recorded in Columbia River Estuary, 2002 Jeff Cordell Appears to have displaced previously introduced P. inopinus in the Columbia River, which is no longer abundant UW Ballast Water

19 Upper map shows stations for zooplankton sampled from lower Columbia River docks by WSU Vancouver (S. Bollens). Note presence of Pseudodiaptomus forbesi at all stations Lower map shows stations sampled during Middle Columbia-Snake River non-indigenous species survey: P. forbesi occurred throughout the middle Columbia R., up to the confluence with the Snake River. It also occurred at the uppermost station in the reservoir of the Ice Harbor dam on the Snake River. Thus, it has negotiated the first five dams in the system. Question for the audience: what might be the vectors for this spread? Grain barges? It is interesting to note that P. forbesi did not occur in the Hanford Reach, the last free-flowing stretch of the lower river. UW Ballast Water

20 May and August 2005 Results from 2005 sampling of lower Columbia River docks: percent composition of P. forbesi and native plankton groups. Upper graphs from May sampling, lower graphs from August sampling. Take home point: if you sampled only in the spring, plankton would appear to be largely native, but in Autumn, it is hugely dominated by the invasive copepod (except lowest station) UW Ballast Water

21 Reservoir Lower Granite Little Goose Lower Monumental Ice Harbor
McNary Results from Middle Columbia-Snake river sampling (Aug-Sept. 2006): many stations in the lower Columbia River are dominated by P. forbesi. Hanford Reach dominated by native calanoid copepods. Snake River reservoirs dominated by native Daphnia and cyclopoid copepods Questions: do physical (e.g., current in the Hanford Reach) or biotic (e.g., competition from native species) resistance factors keep P. forbesi from expanding upstream in the Columbia and Snake rivers, or will it continue to move upstream? This material will be published in the proceedings of the last International Conference on Marine Bioinvasions John Day Bonneville UW Ballast Water

22 Washington Non-Indigenous Marine/Estuarine Species “Introduced” by Ballast Water
The others The biggies Carcinus maenus Crab, European green Eriocheir sinensis Crab, mitten Styela clava Tunicate, club (solitary) Ciona savignyi Tunicate, transparent (solitary) Molgula manhattensis Tunicate (solitary) Botrylloides violaceus Tunicate, chain (colonial) Botryllus schlosseri Tunicate, golden star (colonial) Didemnum sp. Tunicate (colonial) Diadumene lineate Anemone, orange-stripe Petricolaria pholadiformis Angelwing, false Zoobotryon verticillatum Bryozoan, spaghetti Neotrapezium liratum Clam, Japanese Potamocorbula amurensis Clam, Asian Gemma gemma Clam, Atlantic gem Mercenaria mercenaria Clam, Northern quahog Mnemiopsis leidyi Comb jelly, Leidy’s Pseudodiaptomus inopinus Copepod Rhithropanopeus harrisii Crab, Harris mud Sabella spallanzanii Fan worm, Mediterranean Tridentiger trigonocephalus Goby, chameleon goby Orthione griffensis Isopod, Griffen’s (parasitic) Maeotias inexspectata Jellyfish, Black Sea Phyllorhiza punctata Jellyfish, spotted Batallaria attramentaria Mudsnail, Asian Geukensia demissa Mussel, Atlantic ribbed Perna spp. Mussel, New Zealand green Musculista senhousia Mussel, Japanese Exopalaemon modestus Prawn, Siberian Crepidula fornicata Snail, Atlantic slipper Clathria prolifera Sponge, red beard Busycotypus canaliculatus Whelk, channeled Nuttallia obscurata Clam, purple varnish Washington State Aquatic Nuisance Species Watch List (Invasive Species Council, August 2007) UW Ballast Water

23 What to do? Ballast water exchange.
Ship exchanges the water in its ballast tanks 50 to 200 nautical miles from coast Empty-refill method Flow through method 2 to 3 times volume of water is flushed through ballast tank UW Ballast Water

24 State of Washington Ballast Sampling
Sampling initiated 6 years ago by University of Washington Later, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife began sampling; preserved zooplankton samples provided to UW 2 ship inspectors - Puget Sound and Columbia River Sampling: 3 vertical plankton tows per sampled ballast tank 73 µm mesh net Zooplankton identified to lowest taxonomic level possible Examined ballast samples from 246 ships, Accepted for publication, Aquatic Conservation UW developing MS Access database Quicker analysis of data Less errors in data entry Today, preliminary sample analysis, 172 ships UW Ballast Water

25 UW Ballast Water

26 UW Ballast Water

27 Ballast water zooplankton samples per month 2006 (n=76) and 2007 (n=96)
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28 Number of boardings by ship type (2006 - 2007)
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29 Number of boardings by source country (2006 - 2007)
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30 % and abundance of NI + Coastal Organisms (2006 - 2007) (n=133, others in process)
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31 % and abundance of NI + Coastal Organisms (2006 and 2007) - CA as BW source (n=45)
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32 Oithona davisae Most commonly discharged non-indigenous zooplankton from sampled vessels ( data) All ships sampled Estimated # of Oithona davisae discharged per ship Geometric mean 1.47E+05 Mean 1.35E+07 Standard Error 8.33E+06 Median 1.99E+05 Standard Deviation 6.40E+07 Minimum Maximum 4.38E+08 Count 59 frequency of occurrence (2006 and 2007 samples) 47.4% Ships with CA as BW source Estimated # of Oithona davisae discharged per ship Geometric Mean 1.37E+05 Mean 2.66E+07 Standard Error 1.67E+07 Median 3.11E+05 Standard Deviation 9.01E+07 Minimum Maximum 4.38E+08 Count 29 frequency of occurrence (2006 and 2007 samples) 73.3% UW Ballast Water

33 Conclusions from Puget Sound Ship Sampling (Cordell et. al in press)
Despite Washington State regulations requiring oceanic exchange (OE), ships had high densities and/or percentages of NIS and/or coastal species. Densities of both NIS and coastal taxa, and percentages of NIS were consistently and significantly higher from domestic trips; lower in samples from transpacific trips. Domestic trips dominated by tankers carrying ballast water from California. International trips dominated by container ships and bulk carriers with ballast from Japan, China, and South Korea. UW Ballast Water

34 Comment 3 Proposed discharged standard will challenge technologies and testing protocols.
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35 International Maritime Organization (IMO)
Discharge Standards Size of organisms International Maritime Organization (IMO) Washington California Canada U.S. S.1578 > 50 µm < 10 m-3 Kill or remove 95% zooplankton No detectable living organisms < 0.1 m-3 10 to 50 µm < 10 mL-1 Kill or remove 95% phytoplankton < 10-2 mL-1 < 1 mL-1 UW Ballast Water

36 Public Health Microorganisms
Type of organism International Maritime Organization (IMO) Washington California Canada U.S. S.1578 Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae 1 CFU 100 mL-1, 1 CFU g-1 wet zooplankton 1 CFU 100 mL-1, 1 CFU g-1 wet zooplankton < 1 CFU 100 mL-1; <1 CFU g-1 zoological sample E. coli 250 CFU 100 mL-1 126 CFU 100 mL-1 250 CFU 100 mL-1 <126 CFU 100 mL-1 Intestinal enterococci 100 CFU 100 mL-1 33 CFU 100 mL-1 100 CFU 100 mL-1 < 33 CFU 100 mL-1 UW Ballast Water

37 Treatment Technologies
Chemical biocides Ozone Sodium hypochlorite Chlorine dioxide PERACLEAN® Ocean (peroxyacetic acid) SeaKleen® (menadione, vitamin K3) Advanced oxidation methods Size separation Filtration Cyclonic separation Physical methods Ultraviolet light Deoxygenation Electrolysis Heat Combinations of treatment Red = UW work UW Ballast Water

38 “Scale Up” Process UW Ballast Water

39 Comment 4 Don’t scale-up a screw-up
Comment 4 Don’t scale-up a screw-up. Comment 5 Do your homework before you install a treatment system on a ship. UW Ballast Water

40 Upcoming Shipboard Tests
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41 Severn Trent De Nora BalPure Treatment System onboard the SeaRiver American Pride
STDN electrolytic sodium hypochlorite generator Neutralization step before discharge American Pride - tanker, petroleum product Voyage: Port Everglades, FL (Miami) to Beaumont, TX U.S. Coast Guard STEP IMO - compatible tests (G8) 3 replicate 1.1 m3 samples collected during each 1/3 of ballast uplift 3 replicate 1.1 m3 samples collected during each 1/3 of ballast discharge Samples collected from control and treatment ballast tanks during voyage 3 biological tests in 6 months February, May, August 2008 UW Ballast Water

42 Concluding Comments Ballast water exchange, as currently practiced, is releasing large numbers of non-indigenous and/or coastal organisms in Puget Sound. Many potential treatment technologies being considered. Limitations and positive attributes of each technology need to be evaluated. Different technologies may be applicable to different vessel classes. Many treatment technologies appear better than ballast water exchange (e.g., concentration of discharged organisms) Scientists and engineers must work together in not only finding environmental problems, but also in providing solutions. UW Ballast Water

43 Funding Acknowledgements
National Sea Grant Program U.S. Fish and Wildlife Washington Sea Grant United States Geological Survey (USGS) Industry BP Oil Transportation Severn Trent De Nora MARENCO Technology Group UW Ballast Water

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