Presentation on theme: "RCAC Water Conservation. RCAC What is water conservation? Any action, program or technology that: Reduces draw from water sources Reduces indoor and outdoor."— Presentation transcript:
RCAC What is water conservation? Any action, program or technology that: Reduces draw from water sources Reduces indoor and outdoor water use Reduces water loss or waste Improves efficiency of water use Increases water recycling/reuse Prevents water pollution
RCAC Selling water conservation to clients What are some challenges to promoting WC planning to communities?
RCAC EPA Water Conservation planning tool for TA providers Designed for systems serving populations of 10,000 or fewer 1.Specify conservation planning goals 2.Develop a water system profile 3.Prepare a demand forecast 4.Identify & evaluate conservation measures 5.Present implementation strategy ESEPA Basic Guidelines for Preparing a Water Conservation Plan
RCAC 1. Specify Conservation Planning Goals Goals should be specific and measurable Examples: Residential water use will be reduced by 15% over three years Low flow showerheads will be installed in 20% of the residences by 2011 Water audits will be completed on 30% of Commercial/industrial/institutional customers within the first two years
RCAC 1. Specify Conservation Planning Goals (contd) Planning goals may also include: Eliminating, downsizing, or postponing capital projects Extending the life of existing facilities Avoiding new source development costs Educating customers about the value of water Protecting/preserving environmental resources Lowering variable operating costs
RCAC 2. Develop a water system profile Summarize system characteristics Population served Service area Annual water supply Number of service connections Water demand Average day demand Peak demand Water pricing/rates
RCAC 2. Develop a water system profile (contd) Summarize system conditions Designated critical water supply area? Frequent supply shortages/emergencies? Substantial unaccounted for/lost water? High rate of population/demand growth? Substantial improvements or additions planned?
RCAC 2. Develop a water system profile (contd) Summarize current conservation measures What specific measures are in place? When were they implemented? How effective are they? What are the estimated annual water savings from each measure?
RCAC 3. Prepare a demand forecast Based on anticipated population growth More accurate if prepared for different classifications of water use Residential Commercial/large water users 5 and 10 years forecasts Optional if population is growing at less than 2% per year
RCAC 4. Identify/evaluate conservation measures (contd) Criteria for selecting conservation measures can include: Program costs Cost effectiveness Budgetary considerations Ease of implementing Staff resources & capability Environmental impacts Ratepayer impacts
RCAC 4. Identify/evaluate conservation measures (contd) Criteria for selecting conservation measures can include: Water rights and permits Legal issues or restraints Regulatory approval Public acceptance Timeliness of savings Consistency with other programs
RCAC 4. Identify/evaluate conservation measures (contd) Prepare a budget for each planned conservation measure, including estimated costs/gallon of water saved Avoid counting water savings from a measure more than once when doing cost benefit analysis
RCAC 4. Identify/evaluate conservation measures (contd) Based on budget and other selection criteria, chose which measures will be implemented Consider effects of conservation on system revenues (reduction in sales) Include general summary of expected benefits, including effects on planned capital improvements
RCAC 5. Present Implementation Strategy Present strategy and timetable for implementation Note specific factors or contingencies that might effect implementation Address data collection and modeling required to track effects of conservation over time Plan to update and revise WC plan
RCAC Review current and forecasted systems conditions Exercise Page 1-4
RCAC Definition of a Water Audit Thorough examination of the accuracy of a water agencies records and control equipment Overall Goal Identify Quantify Verify Water Losses and Revenue Performed Annually To update the results of earlier audits
RCAC Water Audits Water in: Groundwater/surface water Purchased water Total water in____________ Water out: Metered Leaks/theft/under billing/ faulty control systems Total water out___________ Water in – water out = unaccounted for water
RCAC Selling the benefits of a water audit to a utility Reduced pumping costs (electricity) Reduced treatment costs (chemical) Increased revenues from undercharged customers Increased knowledge of distribution system Gain experience with the use of maps Helps a utility respond more quickly to emergencies
RCAC Benefits of a Water Audit Stretch existing supplies to meet increased needs Defer construction of new facilities Improved maintenance can reduced the likelihood of property damage Better safe guard public health and safety Cross contamination during system pressure loss occurrences
RCAC The health risks of a leaky distribution system USEPA: The Potential for Health Risks from Intrusion of Contaminants into the Distribution System from Pressure transients Potential for prolonged negative pressure events in distribution systems Direct epidemiological connection between leaky mains/poor chlorine residual/ low pressure and gastrointestinal illness
RCAC Water Audit Activities Verifying, Quantifying and Updating : Water source inflow records Inaccurate source data will invalidate the audit Billing and accounting information Un-metered use records Parks, community centers, government facilities, firefighting
RCAC Authorized Un-metered Users Un-metered uses must be carefully estimated to produce an accurate audit Recommend metering all water users even if it is not billed
RCAC Water Audit Activities Verifying and Updating system maps-GIS Testing master and source meters for accuracy Testing residential, commercial, and industrial sales meters for accuracy Large meter testing is the most expensive item of a water audit ($150- $500 per meter, repair $350- $1000 per meter)
Water Board Faces Grand Jury Grilling Over Fatal Sink Hole Incident Officials Turned a blind eye to warning signs, alleges former manager. Story on page B2
RCAC Why Do Distribution Systems Leak? Age Corrosion Faulty installation Material defect Excessive pressures (or surges) Ground movement Traffic loading and vibration
RCAC Where Is All This Water Going? Leaks follow the path of least resistance Porous (sandy) soil Gravel backfill Sanitary sewers Storm sewers Geologic features A few actually reach the surface!
Are There Any Warning Signs? Many main breaks are actually unseen leaks that could be repaired before the break occurs
RCAC Robotic Noise Loggers Placed in remote areas Turn themselves on when noise is at a minimum (2 a.m.) Listen for leak noises, then shut themselves off after a few hours Transmit data wirelessly during daylight hours Moved to other areas as needed
RCAC Typical Equipment Cost Portable contact (probe) devices - $1500-$2000 Unpowered geophones - $30-$350 Amplified acoustic detection systems - $2500-$3800 Multi-channel acoustic correlators - $17,000 - $23,000 Portable leak noise loggers - $200-$600 per unit depending on quantity
RCAC Equipment options Purchase (good investment) Rent / Lease Hire a contractor Borrow from neighboring agency Vendor demo units
RCAC How Is A Leak Survey Done? Map out a grid of water system Experienced crew should cover 6 to 8 miles per day Conduct preliminary survey using contact (probe) equipment Return to pinpoint suspected leak locations using correlation