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Information Systems Hardware Chapter 2. Chapter Objectives Understand the important role of IS hardware in the success of modern organizations Describe.

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Presentation on theme: "Information Systems Hardware Chapter 2. Chapter Objectives Understand the important role of IS hardware in the success of modern organizations Describe."— Presentation transcript:

1 Information Systems Hardware Chapter 2

2 Chapter Objectives Understand the important role of IS hardware in the success of modern organizations Describe key elements of IS hardware List and describe the types of computers used in organizations today Explain how hardware has evolved and where it is headed

3 The Importance of Information Systems Hardware Used in a rapidly changing, highly competitive global economy Relied upon for the exchange of real- time information Used on a daily basis for work, school, and fun

4 Key Elements of Information Systems Hardware

5 Input: How Information is Entered into an Information System The type of information determines how it is input –Text, numbers –Drawings, designs –Audio, video

6 Entering Original Text / Numbers Keyboard is most common entry device Advanced keyboards are ergonomically designed

7 Selecting and Pointing Mouse - most common pointing device Trackball Joysticks Touch screens Light pens

8 Entering Batch Data Used for entering large amounts of routine information Scanners –Convert printed text and images into digital data Text recognition software –Convert handwritten text to digital data Bar Code/Optical Character Readers –Use light to scan magnetic data

9 Audio and Video Microphone Digital cameras Video cameras Videocassette recorders

10 Processing: Transforming Inputs into Outputs All input must be converted into computer readable format Internal processing uses binary notation –Binary consists of a series of 0s and 1s –Each 0 or 1 is a bit –A combination of eight bits is a byte ASCII represents numbers and letters in binary code

11 Key Processing Elements Central Processing Unit (CPU) –Interprets and executes commands –Controls movement of data Primary storage –Current Secondary storage –Permanent

12 Figure 2.10

13 Primary Storage: Storage for Current Information Nonvolatile –ROM (Read Only Memory) Holds instructions to start up the computer Volatile –RAM (Random Access Memory) Stores data and program instructions the CPU is currently working on –Cache Memory Fast RAM for instructions queuing for immediate processing by the CPU

14 Elements of Computer Storage

15 Secondary Storage: Keeping Information for Later Use Permanent storage of data and programs –Magnetic tape –Floppy disks –Fixed disks –Compact discs –Optical disks

16 Magnetic Tape Same medium as audio cassette tapes Data stored by magnetically rearranging atoms on tape Uses sequential data access Primarily used for backing up large amounts of data

17 Floppy Disks Small magnetic disks Transfer data between computers Use direct data access (random access) 2.5 disk holds 1.44 MB Iomegas ZIP disk can store 100 MB

18 Fixed Disks Several magnetic platters in a sealed container Read/Write heads for each platter surface Greater storage capacity and data transfer rate than floppy disks

19 CD-ROM (Compact Disc Read-Only Memory) Uses the same technology as audio CD Uses direct access Holds 650MB Slower than fixed disk CD-R (CD-Recordable) drives available

20 Optical Disks Similar to CD-ROM technology May be rewritten many times Storage capacity of over 1 gigabyte (GB) on a single disk Disks and disk players relatively expensive

21 The Central Processing Unit: The Brain of the Computer Calculates and manipulates data Composed of millions of transistors Operates on electronic impulses Can perform more than a million instructions per second

22 Output: How Information is Displayed and Printed Output types are limited –Video output –Printer –Sound

23 Video Output Monitors –Most common video display –Uses a cathode ray tube (CRT) Liquid crystal display (LCD) –Used in portable computers Monitors embedded in many other devices

24 Paper-Based Displays Printers –Dot-matrix: form letters using a series of small dots –Inkjet: spray ink on paper from a small cartridge –Laser: use an electrostatic process to burn ink to the paper Plotters –Transfer designs to drafting paper

25 Audio Output Uses small speakers and a sound card Translates digitized data into sound

26 Types of Computers Supercomputers Mainframes Minicomputers Workstations Microcomputers

27 Supercomputers The most powerful and expensive computers Contain numerous very fast processors that work in parallel Used by researchers and scientists to solve very complex problems Cost more than 1 million dollars

28 Mainframes The backbone of large corporate computing The only type of computer that existed 30 years ago Used for enterprise-wide computing

29 Minicomputers Scaled down versions of mainframes –Smaller –Less expensive Declining market due to faster and more powerful microcomputers

30 Workstations The power of a minicomputer on a desktop Leaders in the market –Silicon Graphics –Sun Micro Systems –DEC Process intensive applications –Computer-Aided Design (CAD) –Web Servers

31 Microcomputers Often called personal computers Desktop models Portable computers Most commonly used computing technology for knowledge workers

32 Evolution of Information Systems Hardware Shifts in computing eras facilitated by changes in computing technology Evolution marked by significant events creating four generations of hardware

33 The First Generation: Vacuum Tubes 1946 - 1958 ENIAC: one of the first computers – 1946 –Room-size with 18,000 vacuum tubes Replaced in 1950 by the UNIVAC Mainframe era begins

34 The Second Generation: Transistors 1958 -1964 Transistors generate less heat Transistors are smaller, faster, and more reliable First transistors smaller than a dime Mainframe era continues

35 The Third Generation: Integrated Circuits (IC) 1964 -1990 Multiple transistors on a single chip IBM 360 - First mainframe to use IC DEC PDP-11 - First minicomputer 1975 - Altair 8800 first microcomputer 1981 - IBM introduced the PC End of mainframe era, through mini era to personal computing era

36 The Fourth Generation and Beyond 1990 - Present Radical new applications –Multimedia: the integration of voice, video and data –Internet for video conferencing –End-user computing

37 The Future of Information System Hardware Will continue the trend of smaller, faster, cheaper and ubiquitous Virtual Reality Wearable Computing Smart Cards

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