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Merrie Barron, PMP and Andrew R. Barron

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1 Merrie Barron, PMP and Andrew R. Barron
Project Management Merrie Barron, PMP and Andrew R. Barron

2 What is a Project? A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to accomplish a unique product or service with a defined start and end point and specific objectives that, when attained, signify completion. The starting point in discussing how projects should be properly managed is to first understand what a project is (and what it is not) A project has distinctive attributes which distinguish it from ongoing work or business process workflow. Temporary: Not an everyday process- well defined beginnings and ends. The end is reached when the project’s objectives have been achieved A large part of the project effort is dedicated to ensuring that the project is completed at the appointed time- schedules are created showing when tasks should be begin and end. Unique: All projects create unique deliverables; they can be goods (products) or services- they may similar to prior projects but they are unique in terms of timeframes, resources business environment, etc Projects have Specific Objectives: Clear achievable goals understood by all. PMBOK definition PMBOK is a trademark of the Project Management Institute

3 What is a Project Manager?
100% responsible for the processes needed to manage a project to a successful conclusion. Managing the overall schedule to ensure work is assigned and completed on time and within budget and in scope. Identifying, tracking, managing and resolving project issues Identifying, responding to and managing project risk. Proactively communicating project information to all stakeholders 2. You ask most seasoned project managers to describe their most fundamental objective in carrying out a project, they’ll say “ to get the job done on time, within budget and in scope” these three items are so commonly identified by project managers as important parameters they have been given a name: the Triple Constraint. We will talk more about that in a few minutes. 3. What % of time does a PM spend on communication? 90% Therefore the must be good communicators- project communication can be summed up as who needs what information and when.

4 Who are the stakeholders?
2. You ask most seasoned project managers to describe their most fundamental objective in carrying out a project, they’ll say “ to get the job done on time, within budget and in scope” these three items are so commonly identified by project managers as important parameters they have been given a name: the Triple Constraint. We will talk more about that in a few minutes. 3. What % of time does a PM spend on communication? 90% Therefore the must be good communicators- project communication can be summed up as who needs what information and when. 4

5 What is a Project Manager? (contd.)
Process Responsibilities Ensuring that the solution is of acceptable quality. Proactively managing scope to ensure that only what was agreed to is delivered, unless changes are approved through scope management Defining and collecting metrics to give a sense for how the project is progressing and whether the deliverables produced are acceptable. 1. Who defines quality? (the customer) 2. The toughest job a pm has is managing change. 3. How can you tell when a deliverable or project is complete? (when these metrics are met)

6 What is a Project Manager? People Responsibilities
General management skills needed to establish processes and make sure that people follow them Leadership skills to get the team to willingly follow your direction (team building, motivational) Sets reasonable, challenging and clear expectations of people (proactive verbal and written communication) Hold team members accountable for meeting the expectations (performance feedback) 1. General management skills needed: in this area we are talking about your ability to plan the project, to execute and control the project properly and bring it to a successful conclusion. It’s the ability to guide the project team in achieving project objectives and balancing the constraints. 2. Leadership is the ability to motivate and inspire individuals to work towards expected results. Leaders inspire vision and rally people around common goals. The project manager as the leader can inspire the project team to see the vision and value of the project. 3. it is essential that your project staff know what is expected of them; what they have to do and what budget and time constraints and quality specification they are working towards. 4. the PM is responsible for the success or failure of their project- your held accountable for the project so you need to stay on top of the resources

7 What can go wrong in a Project?
The major cause of project failure is not the specifics of what went wrong, but rather the lack of procedures, methodology and standards for managing the project. Quality control: reduction in quality of the product they are developing Project politics: not everyone has bought into the project Lack of communication or training Requirements not well defined- poorly identified customer needs and incomplete specified project requirements Planning process not executed- poor planning and control PMBOK definition PMBOK is a trademark of the Project Management Institute

8 What is Project Management?
Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques applied to project activities in order to meet or exceed stakeholder needs and expectations from a project. Good project management discipline is the way to help reduce the risks. Having good project management skills does not mean you have no problems It does not mean that risks go away It does not mean that there are no surprises. The value of good project management is that you have standard processes in place to deal with all the contingencies. PMBOK definition PMBOK is a trademark of the Project Management Institute

9 Project Management Areas of Responsibility
Establish objectives that can be achieved Identify the requirements for the project Satisfy everyone’s needs Balance scope, time and cost (Triple Constraint) 1. When everyone understands the objective or goals of the project, it’s much easier to keep them all on the right path. Make sure you set up goals that everyone agrees on to avoid team conflicts later on. 2. if you do this before you begin, your project starts on the right track. This means writing down what everyone needs from the project. Figure out your cost, and scope, schedule and the overall resources needed. Define how will you produce the deliverable? 3. Understanding and addressing the needs, concerns and expectations of everyone affected by the project means that the end result of your project is far more likely to satisfy your stakeholders. This means all of your team members, the people who are financing the project, the customers or anyone else who is affected by what’s going on…. 4. Project managers need to balance these three to succeed. They always need to be managed together.

10 The Triple Constraint The triangle illustrates the relationship between three primary forces in a project. Time: is the available time to deliver a project Costs: represents the amount of money or resources available And Scope represents the work that is to be done for the project to achieve success. The relationship among these factors is such that if one factor changes, at least one other factor is likely to be affected. For example if the schedule is shortened, often the budget needs to be increased to add additional resources to complete the same amount of work in less time. Remember the new stadium for the Texans? Time was a fixed constraint- they needed to get the stadium complete in time for the new football season- this pushed the project over budget by over $100 million dollars. If a budget increase is not possible, the scope or quality may be reduced to deliver the project in less time for the same budget.

11 Scope Creep Add Time- delay the project to give you more time to add the functionality ($) Add Cost- recruit, hire or acquire more people to do the extra work ($) Cut Quality- trade off some non-essential requirements for the new requirements ($) Project stakeholders may have differing ideas as to which factors are the most important, this creates an even greater challenge- Often times as the deliverable develops and takes on a tangible form, customers see new possibilities and try to change the project accordingly. Changing the project requirements may create additional risks- When the scope starts to creep, new functionality must be added to cover the increased scope. In this situation you have three options: (read bullets) The project team must be able to access the situation and balance the demands in order to deliver a successful project.

12 Exercise 1: Triple Constraint Worksheet
Figure out which of the triple constraints is going to be affected the most: Scope, Schedule, or Cost Sometimes there’s more than one good answer When you make a change to one of the triple constraints, the other two are also affected.

13 Project Life Cycle Every project has beginnings, a middle period where activities move the project toward completion, and an ending (either successful or unsuccessful) A standard project typically has the following four major phases: Project Initiation: where the project’s objectives are defined and project manager is appointed Project Planning: is where the project solution is further developed in as much detail as possible and you plan the steps necessary to meet the project objectives. Project Execution: This phase puts the project plan into motion and performs the work of the project. Progress is continuously monitored and appropriate adjustments are made and recorded as variances from the original plan. Project Closure: emphasis is on releasing the final deliverables to the customer, documents the formal acceptance of the project and brings all aspects of the project to a close. These phases represent the path a project takes from the beginning to its end and are generally referred to as the project life cycle.- We fill be reviewing some of the activities carried out in the first two phases, the initiation phase and planning phase in more detail over the next few days.

14 Initiating a Project A business case is created to define the problem or opportunity in detail and identify a preferred solution for implementation A detailed description of the problem or opportunity A list of alternative solutions available An analysis of the business benefits, costs, risks and issues A description of the preferred solution A summarized plan for implementation It is up to the project sponsor to determine if the project is worth undertaking and whether the project will be profitable to the organization. If the project sponsor determines the project is a good investment, the business case is approved and required funding is allocated, a project is formed and a project team is appointed.

15 Define the project objectives
Establish clear and realistic objectives Good objectives are “clearly stated” and contain a “measure” of how to assess whether they have been achieved. To be realistic, objectives must be “determined jointly” by managers and those who perform the work. All projects are created for a reason- someone identifies the need and creates a project to address that need. How well the project ultimately addresses that need defines the projects success or failure. How can you successfully manage a project if you don’t understand the project objective? What about the project team who will be producing the deliverable, if they don’t have a clear understanding of the objective, the project runs the risk of producing something that doesn’t meet the needs. An objective or goal lacks clarity if when shown to five people, it is interpreted in multiple ways- ideally, after showing it to five people who after reviewing it hold a single view about its meaning. The best way to make a objective clear is to state it in such a way it can be verified. This can be done by building in measures.

16 SMART Objectives Specific (get into the details)
Measurable (use quantitative language so that you know when you are finished) Acceptable (to Stakeholders) Realistic (given project constraints) Time Based (deadlines, not durations) One useful acronym for defining the objective is SMART They must be Specific: expressed clearly and singulary Measurable: ideally in quantitative terms: (an objective or requirement must have a measurable outcome, otherwise you will not be able to determine when you have delivered it) They must be Acceptable: Objectives must be Realistic: in terms of achievement- Time- Based: A timeframe is stated

17 Exercise 2: Setting Clear Objectives
“To have my race car repainted” Imagine you are a office manager and you have contracted a painter to paint your office want to have your office painted. Your goal or objective is to have the office painted a pleasing color. You have 5 minutes to Work within your team and make the following vaguely stated objective more precise. “ To have my race car repainted ” Designate one member from the team to present the statement to the class.

18 How could I have said it? The fiberglass body will be removed from the chassis, all mirrors, and badges should be removed. The body should be painted using GMC autumn gold (2004 model year), and Ford black (2010 model year) in the Worldwide Racing paint scheme as used on the Lotus F1 team in 1969, using a spray gun, applying two coats of paint, allowing 8 hours between coats, with the top coat buffed after drying, and all badges and mirrors being refitted prior to the body being reinstated on the chassis, and be completed by Tuesday, February 21. Of course this statement assumes the painter knows where the office is located- but it does clarify the objective.

19 Project Selection Each team will choose a project
Each team will draw a project-

20 Complete your project objective statement (Exercise 3)
State the objective of your project; what is the business benefit? The objectives should be concisely written so they can be evaluated after the completion of the project to see whether they were achieved The objectives should be specific, measurable, attainable, realistic and time bound. (SMART) everyone has their project, it is up to your team to define the project objective and come up with your project objective statement.

21 Example of an objective statement
To "upgrade the helpdesk telephone system by December 31, 2012 to achieve average client wait times of no more than two minutes". If my project objective was to upgrade the helpdesk telephone system, my objective statement might be: (read statement) Note that the objective is much more concrete and specific than the goal of upgrading the helpdesk telephone system. The objective is measurable in terms of the average client wait times the new phone system is trying to achieve. We must assume that the objective is achievable and realistic. The objective is time-bound, and should be completed by December 31. *****Objectives should refer to the deliverables of the project. In this case, the deliverable refers to the upgrade of the telephone system.

22 Project Planning Scope Planning; Specifies the Requirements for the project Preparing the Work Breakdown Structure Project Schedule Development Resource, Budget, Procurement, Quality and Communication plans are created The planning phase is the second phase of the project life cycle.- and is often the most challenging phase for a project manager because you need to make an educated guess of the staff, resources and equipment needed to complete your project. The planning phase is often referred to the heart of the project life cycle, it’s the process that tells everyone involved where you're going and how you’re going to get there. This is where the project plans are created and documented, helping you to manage time, cost, quality, change, risks and any issues that may come up. The project requirements are defined and the schedule is created.

23 Scope Planning (Exercise 4)
How do you define Scope? What are the deliverables you and your team will produce for the project? What will your project deliver? Project scope planning is concerned with defining all the work of the project- You already got a head start in refining your project’s objective in quantifiable terms, but now you have to write down all of the deliverables your team is going to produce over the course of the project. Deliverables are all the products or services that your team must produce to consider the project complete. Deliverables like objectives must be specific and verifiable and described in detail If we go back to the example of the company producing holiday eggnog from the book; One of the major deliverables is the cartons that hold the eggnog.

24 Scope Statement (Exercise 5)
The project scope statement may include: Product Scope Project Scope Deliverables Product/ Project acceptance criteria What is not part of the project Constraints or Assumptions In defining and documenting the scope statement in effect says “here is what we will do on this project or “Here is the approved project and product scope for this project.” The development of the scope statement can take a lot of time and involve the expert judgment of many stakeholders and even experts from outside of the organization. The project scope statement along with the Work breakdown structure (which we’ll talk about later) comprise the scope baseline, which is part of the project management plan. *read bullets Constraints are factors that limit the teams options, such as limits on resources, budgets, schedule and scope (mgmt saying the project must be completed with only five resources) Assumptions are things that are assumed to be true but may not be true (it is assumed that we will not need engineering departmental approval before we start the activity) If the constraints change or the assumptions are proven wrong, the project management plan may need to change. 24

25 Project Requirements Requirements answer the following questions regarding the AS IS and TO BE states of the business (who, what, where, when, how much, how does a business process work) After all of the deliverables are identified, the project manager needs to document all of the requirements of the project. Requirements describe the characteristics of the deliverable. They may describe functionality that the deliverable must have or specific conditions the deliverable must meet. For example: The requirement for the eggnog carton deliverable from our previous example may include carton design, photographs that will appear on the carton, color choices, etc.. They specify what the deliverable will look like and what it should do. 25

26 Requirements can be divided into six basic categories:
Regulatory requirements are the restrictions, licenses and laws applicable to a product or business, imposed by the government (shall connect to standard utility power sources within their civic jurisdiction) Business requirements: are statements of the business rationale for the project (profit of 10% quarterly) User Requirements: are what the users need to do with the system or product; the experience they need to have- (transaction time less than two minutes for a first time user) Functional Requirements: describe the characteristics of the deliverable- what you want the deliverable to do (ability to select whether or not to print a receipt) Non Functional requirements: are the restrictions or constraints to be placed on a deliverable and how to build it or design it (for example: all displays should be in 14 pt. arial font) Technical requirements: answer how the system will be designed and implemented to provide required functionality Pg. 54- ATM example Types of Requirements Regulatory: Internal and external; usually non negotiable Business: needs of the sponsoring organization; always from a management perspective User: What the users need to do with the system or product Functional and Non Functional : What the system needs to be able to do to satisfy the business and user needs in terms of function and functionality Technical: How the system needs to be designed and implemented to provide required functionality and fulfill required operational characteristics. 26

27 Project Planning Activity (Exercise 6)
Scope Planning: you’ve already identified the deliverables needed to successfully meet the project objectives. Now Identify the Requirements describing the deliverable Identify 12 requirements; Try to include at least one requirement from each category; Regulatory, Business, User, Functional and Non Functional Read Bullets If you need examples of the different types of requirements, take a look at Chapter 11; Project Planning- on page 54- there are examples of what each type of requirement might be for an ATM machine. 10 minutes 27

28 Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
Provides a framework for organizing and managing the approved project scope Helps ensure you have defined all the work that makes up the project Provides a framework for planning and controlling costs and schedule information Now that you have the deliverables and the requirements defined, the process of breaking down the work of the project via a work breakdown schedule begins. The WBS breaks the work down into components that can be scheduled and estimated. When people begin scheduling a project, the first thing they often do is to generate a list of all the tasks that will be included. First they take the big picture view of the project and list the major phases that must be addressed. Then they begin adding detail to each phase; they later add detail to the detail. The idea behind the WBS is simple, You stop breaking down the work when you reach a level low enough to perform an estimate; how long it will take or how much it is going to cost to perform the work or how many resources it is going to take. 28

29 Work Breakdown Structure
You’ll notice that the element at each level of the WBS is assigned a unique identifier; which is usually a number known as the code of accounts- this is used to track costs, schedules and resources associated with WBS elements and is usually used in the chart of accounts or a WBS dictionary- 29

30 WBS by Deliverable There are many ways you can organize a WBS- here is one by deliverable. The major deliverables of the project are used as the first level in the WBS; in this case, it is a multimedia project which stands at the highest level of the WBS and includes producing a Book, CD and a DVD at the next level down and the writing at the next and so forth. Each descending level of the WBS represents an increased level of detailed definition of the project work. It is much easier to provide estimates at this level. The lowest level in a WBS is called a work package It’s important to note that we don’t worry about the sequence in which the work is performed or any dependencies- The main idea is to capture all the tasks 30

31 WBS Team Activity Build a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) for your project using your deliverables you defined earlier. Use one sticky pad sheet for each summary and detailed activity for your project. Each team should have at least 3 summary tasks and 12 detailed activities Number each activity based on levels (0.0, 1.0, 2.0, 2.1, 2.2, 2.2.1,…) 15 minutes (this is where we ended) 31

32 Sequence the Activities
What comes first, second, third, etc. Look for relationships between activities What can be done in parallel? What activities must wait for others to complete? Begin to identify the milestones Read first 2 bullets As you figure out which activities will need to be done in what order, you may uncover some important checkpoints of your projects that are tracked as milestones. They could be listed as requirements of successful completion; or just be significant points in the project that you want to keep track of. The milestone list needs to let everyone know which are required and which are not. 32

33 Network Diagram One Start and One End
Collection of any set of related tasks is a path. All tasks have at least one predecessor (except the beginning) All tasks at have at least one successor (except the end) The first step in developing the schedule is to develop the network diagram of the WBS work packages. Network diagrams provide a graphical view of the tasks and how they relate to one another. All of WBS tasks must be included in the network because they have to be accounted for in the schedule. Leaving out one task could change the overall schedule duration, estimated costs and resource allocated commitments. 33

34 Convert WBS to Network Diagram
The first step is to arrange the tasks from your WBS into a sequence. Some tasks can be accomplished at any time throughout the project where other tasks depend on input from another task or are constrained by time or resources. The WBS is not a schedule, but it is the basis for it; the network diagram is a schedule that ultimately goes into user friendly schedule formats, such as milestone and Gantt charts. 34

35 Assign Resources Assign specific resources if known
Assign generic resource roles “programmer 1”, “technical writer 1” Check for resource over-allocation or under allocation Before you can put the final schedule together, you need to know who is going to each job, and what you need available in order to do it! Resources are people, equipment, locations, or anything else that you need in order to do all of the activities that you planned for. 35

36 Estimate Duration Factor in productive hours per day
Factor in available workdays Determine how many resources on each activity Take into account any part-time resources Calculate delays and lag times Estimating the duration of an activity means starting with the information you have about the activity and the resources that are assigned to it, and then working with the project team to come up with an estimate.. Most of the time you’ll start with a rough estimate and then refine it to make it more accurate. Average productive hours are 6.5 hrs per day. Consultants are 7 hrs out of an 8 hr day There are several techniques to use, to determine the duration 36

37 Estimate the Duration Bottom Up Estimating Break down the work
Estimate all work at the detailed level Add up the estimates for all detailed activities Apply estimating techniques at the activity level Bottom up Estimating or (WBS estimating) is usually the most time-consuming, but can be the most accurate- Calculate the total effort by adding up all the detailed work components. Add contingency hours. Contingency is used to reflect the uncertainty or risk associated with the estimate. If you're asked to estimate work that is not well defined, you may add 50%, 75%, or more to reflect the uncertainty. Review and adjust as necessary. Sometimes when you add up all the components, the estimate seems obviously high or low. If your estimate doesn't look right, go back and make adjustments to your estimating assumptions to better reflect reality. 37

38 Estimation Techniques
Expert Opinion Individual who has done it many times Internal or External to the organization Industry expert Utilize for new technology or unfamiliar with the subject Expert Opinion- Individual who has done it done it many times before, Internal or External to organization, Industry Expert 38

39 Estimation Techniques
Published Estimating Data Articles Books Journals periodicals Published estimating data is something that project managers use in a lot of industries- they rely on published data from other people’s projects. 39

40 Estimating Techniques
Previous history (actual hours tracked) Analogy (similar, not exact) Look for similar projects from the past Example: Chicago project is 500 hours. Atlanta is similar size Previous History/ Analogy- Look for similar projects from the past Example: Chicago project is 500 hours, Atlanta is similar size. 40

41 Estimating Techniques
Ratio Characteristics of project allow comparison Projects are similar but different scale The main factors that drive the effort are similar Example- Chicago project is 500 hours. Orlando is half as big. New York is twice as big Ratio- Projects are similar but a different scale, The main factors that drive the project are similar- Could be scaled higher or lower Example- Chicago project is 500 hours. Orlando is half as big. New York is twice as big 41

42 Estimate the Effort Parametric Modeling
Characteristics of project allows use of a model Use statistics, formulae, spreadsheets Example- Highway is $1 million per lane per mile. How much for 10 miles of four lane highway? Characteristics of project allows use of a model Example- Highway is $1 million per lane per mile. How much for 10 miles of four lane highway? 42

43 Estimation Exercise Read your script
Estimate the number of candies based on your script Report your estimate How did you come up with your estimate? Estimation Exercise 43

44 Critical Path Provides a graphical view of the project
Predicts the time required to complete the project Shows which activities are critical to maintaining the schedule and which are not. Demonstrates the longest path of the project Drives the project completion date Any delay will cause the entire project to be delayed Once the network Diagram is completed, and you have estimated the completion time using past experiences or the knowledge of experienced persons to estimate the duration, you can determine the critical path. The critical path is the longest duration path through the network. The significance of the critical is that the activities that rely on it cannot be delayed without delaying the project. 44

45 Calculating Critical Path
Calculated automatically by project management tool Can calculate manually by understanding early start, early finish, late start and late finish You’ll probably use a software tool to calculate the critical path- the schedule is displayed using a Gantt charts are easy to read and commonly used to display project schedules and depending on the software you use to display the Gantt chart it might also show you activity sequences, start and end dates, durations, resource assignments, activity dependencies and the critical path. 45

46 Gantt Chart Here is an example of what a gantt chart looks like from Micrsoft project 46

47 Manage to the Critical Path
If a critical path activity will not meet its end date: “Fast Track”-Overlap tasks or run in parallel “Crash”-Additional resources to complete activities more quickly Swap resources with more experienced resources Ensuring the activities on the Critical Path stay on schedule ensures the project will stay on schedule Fast tracking- run tasks in parallel Or you can crash the schedule, add additional resources to complete the activities more quickly. Just remember that Crashing always costs more- there is no way to crash a schedule without raising the overall cost of the project. 47

48 Estimate Cost Now you estimate the costs
Determine the cost of labor, internal and external Include all non-labor costs including: Hardware and software Travel expenses Training Team building Facilities Maintenance/support costs Don’t forget to set aside some money for costs overruns just in case! Now you have full picture of how long the project will take, what resources you need and how much it is going to cost. 48

49 Develop the Project Charter

50 Project Close End of Project Gain final approvals Close the project
Final performance reviews Gather final project metrics End of Project meeting Reallocate project staff Turnover deliverables to support/operations Close all contracts

51 Project Closeout At project closeout, the project should be evaluated, and all lessons learned formally documented 51

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