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Contents Ⅰ. Disaster countermeasures and Great East Japan disaster

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0 Disaster and ICT Systems in Japan
December 2012 Michiko Fukahori Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Japan

1 Contents Ⅰ. Disaster countermeasures and Great East Japan disaster
Ⅱ. ICT systems which was effective in disaster situation Ⅱ-1. Disaster Warning System Ⅱ-2. Communications System Ⅱ-3. Information Sharing TV Mobile TV Radio Data Broadcasting Internet Ⅱ-4. Research and Development - for the future

2 Ⅰ. Disaster countermeasures and Great East Japan disaster

3 Outline of the Disaster Management System
[National Level] Prime Minster | Central Disaster Management Council Designated Government Organizations Designated Public Corporations Formulation and promoting implementation of the Basic Disaster Management Plans Formulation and promoting implementation of the Basic Disaster Operation Plans [Prefectural Level] Governor | Prefectural Disaster Management Council Designated Local Government Organizations Designated Local Public Corporations Formulation and promoting implementation of Local Disaster Management Plans [Municipal Level] Mayors of Cities, Towns and Villages | Municipal Disaster Management Council Formulation and promoting implementation of Local Disaster Management Plans 出典:内閣府『日本の災害対策』 [Residents level] Designated Government Organizations 24 ministries and agencies Designated Public Corporations 56 organizations including independent administrative agencies, Bank of Japan and gas companies and NTT Source: Cabinet Office, Disaster Management in Japan, p.8

4 Organization of National Government
Central Disaster Management Council President Prime Minister Minister of State for Disaster Management Ministers Chief Cabinet Secretary Cabinet Secretariat in charge of security and risk management 出典:内閣府『日本の災害対策』 Ministries related to disaster management Disaster management, Cabinet Office Interact with each other Source: Cabinet Office, Disaster Management in Japan, p.9

5 Structure of Basic Disaster Management Plan
Natural Disasters Earthquake Disaster Countermeasures Storm and Flood Countermeasures Volcano Disaster Countermeasures Snow Disaster Countermeasures Accident Disaster Maritime Disaster Countermeasures Aviation Disaster Countermeasures Railroad Disaster Countermeasures Road Disaster Countermeasures Nuclear Disaster Countermeasures Hazardous Materials Disaster Countermeasures Large-scale Fire Disaster Countermeasures Forest Fire Disaster Countermeasures (Addressing all the disaster phases) Disaster Prevention and Preparedness 出典:内閣府『日本の災害対策』 Disaster Emergency Response Disaster Recovery and Rehabilitation (Tangible countermeasures to be taken by each stakeholder) National Government Local Governments Residents Source: Cabinet Office, Disaster Management in Japan, p.11

6 The number of victims (deaths and missing) of disasters
Storm and Floods Snowfall Earthquake, Volcano and Tsunami 出典:内閣府『日本の災害対策』 Source: Cabinet Office, Disaster Management in Japan, p.2

7 Earthquake in the vicinity of Japan
Date Earthquakes or Hypocenters Uraga-oki Earthquake Kushiro-oki Earthquake Hkkaido-Toho-oki Earthquake Sanriku-Haruka-oki Earthquake Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake Satsuma region in Kagoshima Prefecture Northern region in Iwate Prefecture Niijima and Kozushima Earthquake Western Tottori Earthquake Geiyo Earthquake Miyagi-ken-oki Earthquake Northern Miyagi Earthquake Tokachi-oki Earthquake Niigata-ken-Chuetsu Earthquake Fukuoka-ken-Seihou-oki Earthquake Noto-hanto Earthquake, 2007 Niigata-Chuetsu-oki Earthquake, 2007 Iwate-Miyagi Inland Earthquake, 2008 Northern coastal area of Iwate Prefecture Suruga Bay Legend ○: Earthquakes with seismic intensity of 6 or greater ~: Active faults 出典:内閣府『日本の災害対策』 Source: Cabinet Office, Disaster Management in Japan, p.24

8 The Great East Japan Earthquake & Tsunami
JMA Seismic Intensity Sendai Tokyo Miyako (Iwate) Run-up height:38m* Otsuchi (Iwate) Run-up height:17m* Kesennuma (Miyagi) Run-up height: 20m* Epicenter Fukushima nuclear power station * The 2011 Tohoku Earthquake Tsunami Joint Survey Group ( - Date and Time: 11 March 2011 (FRI) 14:46 JST (05:46 UTC) - Magnitude: (the largest magnitude recorded in Japan’s history) - Epicenter: N38.1, E142.9 (130km ESE off Oshika Peninsula) Depth 24km   (Japan Meteorological Agency) 出典:研究推進室

9 The 3.11 Disaster Miyako City, Iwate Prefecture 出典:研究推進室

10 Summary of Damages 9.0 15,835 3,669 903,220 > 22,000 > 300
Great East Japan Earthquake ( ) Great Hanshin Earthquake ( ) Magnitude 9.0 7.3 Dead 15,835 6,434 Missing 3,669 3 Damaged Houses 903,220 639,686 Damaged Fishing Boats > 22,000 40 Damaged Fishing Ports > 300 17 Farmland 23,600ha 214ha 出典:研究推進室 *1 As of November 7, 2011 (source: National Police Agency) *2 As of November 24, 2011 (source: MAFF)

11 Damage to Fixed Lines, Mobile Base Stations
[Unit: 10,000 Lines] 15000 ■  In total, around 1.9 million communication lines were damaged. ■  In total, about 29,000 base stations were damaged. Max. no. of damaged base stations Max. no. of damaged lines Fixed-line Communications Mobile Communications fixed-line phones FTTH +ADSL [base stations] 出典:事業政策課

12 Emergence of Network Congestion
■ Carriers restricted voice traffic by as much as 70 to 95 percent.* ■ Packet traffic, however, was either not restricted or restricted at a lower rate (0 to 30 percent) than voice traffic. ■ Carriers restricted phone traffic by as much as 80 to 90 percent.* Max. outgoing traffic restrictions eMobile was not subject to restrictions. * There was 4 to 9 times the normal volume of traffic (NTT East.) * There was 50 to 60 times the normal volume of traffic (DoCoMo). Fixed-line Communications Mobile Communications voice packet 出典:事業政策課

13 Locations of Damage to Mobile Networks
Area A Area B RNC Base stations collapsed or backup batteries ran out Cables cut off or duct destroyed Backup generators ran out of fuel because of long power outages Base station Communication cable Transmission line relay station Trunk exchange NTT central office (housing building) NTT central office, customer building, etc. (relay building) 出典:事業政策課

14 Revision to Technical Standards on Measures
for Countering Congestion and for Ensuring Important Communications ●Network design capacity and communications quality reporting, etc. Reporting to MIC of basic policy for network capacity and measures for usage restrictions and preferential treatment of important communications. Regular actual measurement and reporting to MIC of communications quality (connection quality, etc.). Disclosure in appropriate form of information helpful to users on basic policy for network capacity and on measures for usage restrictions. ●Analysis of communications status during usage restrictions Preservation and analysis of data on status of important communications and general communications during usage restrictions in the event of disaster, and continuing review of network design capacity and implementation rules for usage restrictions etc. and reporting thereof to MIC. ●Disclosure of congestion status Immediate disclosure of status of congestion and usage restriction in the event congestion occurs. Announcements and appeals to avoid making inessential and non-urgent calls and to keep call time as short as possible, and to use communication methods other than voice calls, including emergency message services. 出典:事業政策課 Extending the list of target institutions for emergency priority calls Careful consideration based on a review of network design capacity Introducing call length limits Issue for future study Introducing phone calls with reduced sound quality Issue for future study

15 Thanks for assistance from all over the world
出典:研究推進室、重要無線室 Offers from 163 countries and regions, and 43 international organizations Condolences expressed by more than 180 countries and regions, and more than 60 international organizations As of October 17,2011, survey by Ministry of Foreign Affairs Japan

16 Ⅱ. ICT systems which was effective in disaster situation
Ⅱ-1. Disaster Warning System Ⅱ-2. Communications System Ⅱ-3. Information Sharing Ⅱ-4. Research and Development             - for the future

17 Ⅱ-1. Disaster Warning Systems

18 Earthquake Early Warning System
Main-wave Disaster management Organizations S-wave P-wave Immediate action against disasters Ensure Safety of residents Public Institutions (hospitals, schools, etc. ) Ensure evacuation and safety Use to reduce damage Residents Fire prevention, evacuation Japan Meteorological Agency Dissemination 出典:内閣府『日本の災害対策』 Transportation, elevators, etc. Emergency stop for safety Earthquake Early Warning Companies/Factories Protection of workers and facilities against disasters Backup of important data Source: Cabinet Office, Disaster Management in Japan, p.13

19 Early Warning Systems Loud Speaker Roof-top Installation type National Government Ministries and Agencies Related to Disaster Management Japan Meteorological Agency Local Governments Evacuation orders Warnings TV & Radio 出典:内閣府『日本の災害対策』 Early Evacuation Loud Speaker On-street Installation type Public-relations vehicles (Official Vehicles) Indoor receivers Source: Cabinet Office, Disaster Management in Japan, p.14

20 Information flow on Earthquake and Tsunami
Seismic data Gathering System Japan Meteorological Agency EPOS (Earthquake Phenomena Observation System) 4,200 sites around Japan.

21 Monitoring earthquake activities
Seismic data Gathering System 4200 sites around Japan. The earthquake monitoring system collates seismic data coming from seismographs installed in 4200 locations throughout Japan.

22 (Earthquake Phenomena Observation System)
Gathering and analyzing information on earthquake and tsunami EPOS (Earthquake Phenomena Observation System) ・Analyzes the seismic data for Earthquake and Tsunami. ・Announces Earthquake Warning alarm starting right after from detection of the earthquake.

23 C I T Z E N Delivering Information on Earthquake and Tsunami
Fire and Disaster Management Agency Japan Meteorological Agency Administrative Organ C I T Z E N Local Government Telecom Carriers Media Lifeline carriers EPOS (Earthquake Phenomena Observation System) Transportation facilities Japan Coast Guard Earthquake or tsunami warnings are instantly delivered to central & local governments, broadcasters, telecom carriers. After receiving this warning, local government deliver alarm through their sirens or microphones. Ministry for Land, infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT) WEB

24 Early Warning to Mobile Phones
Detection of earthquake Japan Meteorological Agency Earthquake Early Warning Process message delivery Mail Center Disaster/ Evacuation information From state/ local governments - No monthly fee or telecommunication fee is charged

25 EEW EWBS Automatic activation !!
Early Warning through Broadcasting System Broadcasting Station Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) EEW Alert information in Program only EWBS EEW: Earthquake Early Warning EWBS: Emergency Warning Broadcasting System Alert information with “Switch-on” signal of receivers Automatic activation !!

26 One-seg Mobile TV Saved Many Lives during the 3.11 Disaster
Mobile television – Example 1 - One-seg Mobile TV Saved Many Lives during the 3.11 Disaster A huge earthquake struck on March 11 in the north-east area of Japan. Right after the end of the violent shakes caused by the earthquake, Mr. Takahashi, Senior Managing Director of TOYO KNIFE, an industrial cutlery company located in Miyagino district, Sendai City, immediately turned on the one-seg TV function on his mobile phone in his office, to which the power supply was cut off. He got an emergency warning alarm for a tsunami on his one-seg TV (mobile phone). Regrettably his office was located very near the port (about 500m from Sendai-Shiogama Port), so he and other staff did not have much time to evacuate, but 100 people managed to rush to a shelter on a hill. By the time they arrived at the shelter (Tagajyo Public Cultural Center) at 3:30 pm, the TOYO KNIFE office and factory had been completely destroyed by the long-lasting, huge tsunami. Mr. Takahashi said “ We couldn’t watch TV because of the power cut, but we could get information on the disaster quickly from our one-seg TVs.” Note: the one-seg TV function on a mobile phone is powered by the phone’s battery TOYO KNIFE 250m Sendai-Shiogama Port Miyagino district, Sendai City (after the huge tsunami waves) (Summary from Sankei Shimbun (major Japanese national newspaper), June 24, 2011)

27 Mobile television – Example 2 -
Two policemen saved 40 lives from the train with the tsunami warning alarm from mobile TV(one-seg) right after the earthquake occurred at 14:46 on March 11, 2011. They got a tsunami warning alarm from the passengers mobile phone with TV when checking if everyone is fine in the train. They quickly decided to lead the 40 passengers to the hill to avoid the disaster of tsunami. All passengers were safely evacuated from the tsunami area before the tsunami struck the train. Derailed cars of train Shinchi Station Pacific Ocean Route for evacuation Track of Japan railway Shinchi Station Town hall of Shinchi Passengers got on the truck here The hill The cars of train derailed off the track by huge tsunami waves. (March 12, 2011) (Summary from Yomiuri Shimbun(Japanese major national news paper), March 29, 2011)

28 Emergency system for high-speed train
Measuring equipment of earthquake on railroad Measuring equipment of earthquake around coast Main-wave S-wave P-wave EARTHQUAKE STOP!! control center Measuring Equipment of earthquake

29 Ⅱ-2. Communications Systems

30 Central Disaster Management Radio Communications System
On-site Disaster Management Headquarters Designated Local Public Corporations Prefectures Ariake no Oka Core Wide-area Disaster Prevention Base Government designated Cabinet Office (Disaster Management) Tokyo Metropolitan Area Prime Minister’s Office Designated Public Corporation Tachikawa Reserve Facility of the Government Headquarters for Disaster Management Communication Network for Disaster Management Organizations Located Tachikawa Wide-area Disaster Management Base Communications Network for Disaster Management Organizations in Central Tokyo Communications Network for Local Disaster Management Organizations Real time pictures on the spot A Communications Satellite Mobile equipment Transmission of pictures from helicopters ヘリテレ 官邸 (災害対策本部) 出典:内閣府資料 Source: Cabinet Office

31 Ⅱ-3. Information Sharing
TV Mobile TV Radio Data Broadcasting Internet

32 Media used at the time of earthquake
Immediately after the earthquake, the usefulness of mobile phones, mobile phone messages and terrestrial broadcasts received higher evaluation and at the end of April, the evaluation of the usefulness of mobile phones, mobile phone messages and terrestrial broadcasts exceeded that of radios. During the period from the occurrence of the earthquake until the end of April, the websites and search sites of administrative agencies and news media received higher evaluation At the time of occurrence of the quake, AM radios received the highest evaluation (60.1%) followed by FM radios. At the time of occurrence of the earthquake Immediately after the quake Until the end of April Immediately after the earthquake, radios were the only means to obtain information. However, radios were insufficient to grasp the actual state of damage in the area and it took a long time to know of the enormous damage caused by tsunami. We were unable to know who was doing what and felt highly anxiousness. Pay phones Fixed line telephones Mobile phones Internet phones Mobile phone messages Internet s Terrestrial broadcasts BS broadcasting CS broadcasting Cable TV One segment broadcasting AM radios FM radios Temporary radio broadcasting stations Internet radios Administrative agencies’ websites News media’s websites Search sites SNS Twitter Video sharing websites Internet broadcasting Location based services Other websites Disaster radio Disaster emergency message board and dial-up provided by telephone operators and mobile phone operators FAX Words of mouth from neighborhoods Others Phone calls and s Broadcasting Internet 出典:情報通信白書

33 TV Relay Station after Disaster
(Number of station) Number of relay station off the air for TV TV stations suffered significant damages and 120 stations in eleven prefectures were out of service. As there was no power supply in the large part of the disaster areas, both transmitters and receivers were not usable. Number of relay stations off-the air for TV reached the maximum on 12th March Jun. 1 May 23 May 19 May 16 May 12 May 9 May 6 May 2 Apr. 28 Apr. 27 Apr. 26 Apr. 25 Apr. 22 Apr. 21 Apr. 20 Apr. 19 Apr. 18 Apr. 15 Apr. 14 Apr. 13 Apr. 12 Apr. 11 Apr. 10 Apr. 7 Apr. 6 Apr. 5 Mar. 30 Mar. 29 Mar. 28 Mar. 25 Mar. 24 Mar. 23 Mar. 22 Mar. 21 Mar. 20 Mar. 19 Mar. 18 Mar. 17 Mar. 16 Mar. 15 Mar. 14 Mar. 13 Mar. 12 Mar. 11 【Source】 Information material from MIC

34 Mobile TV in the Evacuation Center
Many people watched mobile TV in the evacuation center. As power was disrupted, mobile TV was very important information source for the people in the disaster area. Image: People could see TV through the mobile phone even in the blackout in the afflicted area (Summary from Sankei Shimbun (major Japanese national newspaper), June 24, 2011)

35 Local Disaster FM stations
Radio also played a very important role in the disaster area, as many radio receivers work with batteries and people can receive information even during a power outage. MIC also provided 10,000 radios to the disaster areas free of charge.   Temporary radio stations have been set up which have been actively providing information needed at local level. Many volunteers and local government officials contributed to the operation of such local radio stations. The Studio of “Natori Saigai(disaster) FM” established at Natori City office building, Miyagi prefecture

36 26 stations are established.
Temporary Disaster Designated Broadcasting Stations for Devastated Area Iwate 26 stations are established. MIC has quickly granted broadcasting licenses to local disaster FM stations, which account for 21 in the disaster area. Miyagi J● Fukushima Newly established by communities Based on the community FM Established by broadcasters 36 36 国土地理院承認 平14 総複第149号

37 Digital Signage system at Normal Time
出典:デジタルサイネージ総研 Source: Digital signage Now

38 Digital Signage systems at the time of disaster
Digital signage network is effective tool for information provision at the time of disaster. After the earthquake, all the train services stopped and there was terrible traffic jam in Tokyo. About 5 million people were not able to go home. Digital signage system was used as media to provide information. ■Scenes at each monitor in Tokyo on 11 March 2011 A: At a monitor set on 1st Floor at Marunouchi Building (Photographed around at 22:00) B: At a monitor set in Central Entrance on 1st Floor of Otemachi Building (Photographed around at 16:00) C: At a monitor set in Elevator Hall on B1 Floor of Shin-Marunouchi Building (Photographed around at 22:00) D: At a monitor set on B1 Floor of Marunouchi Building (Photographed around at 22:00) (Source: MITSUBISHI ESTATE CO.,LTD.)

39 The Internet as a Lifeline - Person Finder (Google)
– Person Finder provides a registry and message board for survivors, family, and relatives affected by a natural disaster to post and search for information about each other's status. (Source: Google)

40 The Internet as a Lifeline - Posted Photos of Evacuee Lists

41 Traffic Information in Disaster Area
Some car navigation system gathers driving information from navigation unit and the system consolidate information and send traffic information to users. On March 14, Honda released this driving information gathered through their navigation system on the website. This information became instantly available through Twitter and Facebook. Many people thanked that “We could deliver relief supplies”, or “We could reach family and relatives” by using this system. Road with traffic record : Blue No-traffic record : Gray Vehicle congestion : Red 22 March 6 May (Source: website of ITS Japan)

42 Ⅱ-4. Research and Development
- for the future

43 R&D into Strengthening the Disaster Tolerance (3rd FY 2011 Supplementary Budget)
(1) Research and development of technologies for reducing the incidence of mobile-telephony congestion during disasters (2) Research and development of technologies for autonomous recovery of disaster-damaged infrastructure This project establishes communication technologies for maintaining the use of voice calling during disasters, when voice communication increases dramatically as users make safety confirmation calls. The technologies make intensive use of non-voice communication-processing capabilities and of communications equipment located outside the affected regions. This project establishes radio communications technologies for ensuring autonomous access by local authorities and public facilities to the Internet and other communications even if the regular communications infrastructure has been damaged by disaster. Transmitting images of coastal waters Wireline network important Information on well-being Data transmission Emergency voice calling Mobile-telephone network Internet connection Data line System having improved flexibility Communications processing capabilities for different services flexibly shared out in the event of disaster Research and development, testing/verification/evaluation Forming a world-leading research center Fostering innovation, strengthening collaboration between industry, academia, and government, and promoting standardization and developing results through joint research with universities in the affected regions 出典:事業政策課 ● Achieving information and communications networks that are robust in disasters ● Reviving local economic activity in affected regions (3) Provision of research center at Tohoku University, etc. Japan’s National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) has provided Tohoku University with test bed facilities for testing, verification, and evaluation supported by the NICT facilities-improvement fund.  Provided are communications network testing equipment introducing the world’s most advanced optical transmission technology, used in testing technologies for reducing network congestion; field-portable radio network equipment, used in testing autonomous recovery technologies; and field-portable satellite earth station equipment.

44 Flexible reconfiguration of communication processing resources
R&D on Dynamic Control of Mobile Communication Networks at the Time of a Major Disaster Flexible reconfiguration of communication processing resources Maximum possible resources can be directed to basic communication services during a disaster. Voice calls , internet Music Movies Files Voice calls , internet (emergency message boards) Basic communication services Rich media etc. Basic communication services Next-generation congestion-proof system No possibility to reconfigure or redirect processing resources Dynamic allocation of processing resources , internet (emergency message boards) Other Normal use Emergency 出典:研究推進室

45 R&D on Inter-Cloud Technology for Wide-area Disaster Responses
Sharing resources among multiple cloud systems by optimal communication route after a large-scale disaster Transfer whole processing functions from one cloud to another within 30 minutes Advantages of the Inter-cloud approach - Individual operators can keep investment costs to a minimum. - Small and medium-sized operators will not be forced out of business. Cloud 1 2 stand-by facilities Normal load 3 facilities Overload 4 facilities Use stand-by facilities of other carriers Cloud data center A Cloud 2 Cloud 3 1 stand-by facility Available to local businesses in the Tohoku region 1 stand-by facility 出典:研究推進室 Boost disaster response capacity by Inter- clouds dispersed around remote regions Inter-Cloud Inter-Cloud test bed Cloud data center B Technology for instant switching based on validation using JGN-X Cloud data center C

46 ITU-T FG-DR&NRR Tokyo, Japan: “Technical Tour of SENDAI CITY”
R&D Projects for Resilient Information and Communication Networks in Japan MIC and NICT of Japan are promoting R&D projects for realizing a resilient information and communication network. Please come up to Sendai and check them out on a technical tour on 8th February, 2013. Contact; Mr. Yasuo SHINOZAWA Deputy Director Technology Policy Division Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communication Project examples: R&D for relieving service congestion in the mobile network caused by disaster Under a disaster, a vast amount of voice calls are made in mobile carrier networks and an unprecedented level of traffic (congestion) is generated. New network technology applicable to current and next generation networks to relieve service congestion in the network will be explained. High priority service Rich media communications Voice Mail Music Video File By design In a disaster Resource reallocation by dynamic control R&D on the reconfigurable communication “resource unit” for disaster recovery A “Resource Unit” which can meet the wide variety of communication demands under a disaster will be explained. The “Resource Unit” can be transported by means such as a high-mobility vehicle, can be connected to surviving communication networks, and can reconfigure the damaged networks immediately. Developments of next generation VSATs effective for severe disasters Even in the event of a destroyed ground communication infrastructure by disaster, easy and prompt establishment of satellite communications networks secures alternative communication paths. New multimode VSATs that can connect to heterogeneous satellite systems using easy procedures in a disaster will be explained.

47 Thank you for your attention!

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