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1 The tiling algorithm Learning in feedforward layered networks: the tiling algorithm writed by Marc M é zard and Jean-Pierre Nadal

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2 Outline Introduction The tiling algorithm Simulations Concluding remarks

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3 Introduction The feedforward layered system The drawbacks of back propagation The structure of the network has to be guessed. The error is not guaranteed to converge to an absolute minimum with zero error. Units are added like tiles whenever they are needed.

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4 Introduction

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5 The tiling algorithm Basic notions and notation Theorem for convergence Generation the master unit Building the ancillary units: divide and conquer

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6 Basic notions and notation We consider layered nets, made of binary units which can be in a plus or minus state. A unit i in the Lth layer is connected to the N L-1 units and has state

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7 Basic notions and notation For a given set of p 0 (distinct) pattern of N 0 binary units, we want to learn a given mapping (1 -1 1 1 -1 -1)

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8 Theorem for convergence To each input pattern (1 -1 1 1 -1 ) there corresponds a set of values of the neurons in the Lth layer as the internal representation of pattern in the layer L.

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9 Theorem for convergence We say that two patterns belong to the same class (for the layer L) if they have the same internal representation, which we call the prototype of the class. The problem becomes to map these prototypes onto the desired output.

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10 Theorem for convergence master unit the first unit in each layer ancillary unit all the other units in each layer, use to fulfil the faithfulness condition. faithful two input patterns having different output should have different internal representations.

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11 Theorem for convergence Theorem: Suppose that all the classes in layer L-1 are faithful, and that the number of errors of the master unit, e L-1, is non-zero. Then there exists at least one set of weights w connecting the L-1 layer to the master unit such that. Furthermore, one can construct explicitly one such set of weights u.

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12 Theorem for convergence Proof: Let be the prototypes in layer L-1. be the desired output(1 or – 1). If the master unit of the Lth layer is connected to the L-1th layer with the weight w(w 1 = 1, w j = 0 for j ~= 1), then e L =e L-1.

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13 Theorem for convergence Let be one of the patterns for which, and let u be u 1 =1 and then

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14 Theorem for convergence Consider other patterns, can be -N L-1, -N L-1 +2, …, N L-1 Because the representations in the L-1 layer are faithful, -N L-1 can never be obtained. Thus one can choose so the patterns for which still remain.

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15 Theorem for convergence Hence u is one particular solution which, if used to define the master unit of layer L, will give

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16 Generation the master unit Using pocket algorithm If the particular set u of the previous section is taken as initial set in the pocket algorithm, the output set w will always satisfy.

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17 Building the ancillary units The master unit is not equal to the desired output unit means that at least one of the two classes is unfaithful. We pick one unfaithful class and add a new unit to learn the mapping for the patterns μ belonging to this class only. Repeat above process until all classes are faithful.

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18 Simulations Exhaustive learning (use the full set of the 2 N patterns) Parity task Random Boolean function Generalization Quality of convergence Comments

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19 Parity task In the parity task for N 0 Boolean units the output should be 1 of the number of units in state +1 is even, and – 1 otherwise.

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20 Parity task Hidden layer Unit number ThresholdCoupling from the input layer to the hidden unit i 1-55+11 -11+11-11 2+33-11 +11-11+11 3-11+11 -11+11-11 4 +11-11+11 5+33+11 -11+11-11 6-55-11 +11-11+11

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21 Parity task Output unit ThresholdCouplings from the hidden layer to the output unit +11 +13 +11

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22 Random Boolean function A random Boolean function is obtained by drawing at random the output (±1 with equal probability) for each input configuration. The numbers of layers and of hidden units increase rapidly with N 0.

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23 Generalization The number of training patterns is smaller than 2 N. The N 0 input neurons are organized in a one-dimensional chain, and the problem is to find out whether the number of domain walls is greater or smaller than three.

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24 Generalization domain wall The presence of two neighboring neurons pointing in opposite directions When the average of domain walls are three in training patterns, the problem is harder than other numbers.

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25 See figure 1 in page 2199 Learning in feedforward layered networks: the tiling algorithm

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26 Quality of convergence To quantify the quality of convergence one might think of at least two parameters. e L p L : the number of distinct internal representations in each layer L.

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27 See figure 2 in page 2200 Learning in feedforward layered networks: the tiling algorithm

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28 Comments There is a lot of freedom in the choice of the unfaithful classes to be learnt. How to choose the maximum number of iterations which are allowed before one decides hat the perceptron algorithm has not converged?

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29 Concluding remarks presented a new strategy for building a feedforward layered network Identified some possible roles of the hidden units: the master units and the ancillary units continuous inputs and binary outputs conflicting data more than one output units

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