Strength and stability Resistance to weather and ground moisture Durability and freedom from maintenance Fire safety Resistance to passage of heat Resistance to the passage of sound
Strength & Stability Strength of floor depends on the characteristics of the materials used for the structure of floor. Ex: timber, steel or concrete Floor must be strong enough to support the dead load and imposed load of the floor. Timber floor suitable for small imposed load , small spans and for single family building not more than three storey. Reinforced concrete floor suitable for larger imposed load and wider spans , and both for strength in support and resistance to fire. Floor should have adequate stiffness against gross deflection under load
Resistance to weather and ground moisture
The ground floor of building (heated building) will tend to encourage moisture from the ground below to rise and make the floor damp and feel cold and uncomfortable. In the former instance, a concrete slab alone may be sufficient barrier. In the latter instance, waterproof membrane placed on, in, or under the concrete slab will be necessary to prevent moisture rising to the surface of floor.
Durability and freedom from maintenance
Ground floors protected against rising moisture and upper floors which solidly supported and protected, should be durable for the expected life of the building and require little maintenance Fire safety Suspended upper floors should provide resistance to fire for a period adequate for the escape of the occupants from the building. Estimated periods of resistance to fire is from 0.5 to 4 hours, depending on the size and use of the building. Generally, timber floor provides a lesser period of the resistance to fire compared to a reinforced concrete floor.
Resistance to the passage of sound Resistance to passage of heat
The low mass of a timber floor transmit airborne sound more readily compared to a high mass concrete floor. The sound absorption of a floor can be improved by carpet or felt, and a ceiling by the use of one of the absorbent ‘acoustic’ tile or panel finishes. Resistance to passage of heat A floor should provide resistance to transfer of heat where there is normally a significant air temperature difference on the opposite sides of the floor. Both hardcore and a damp-proof membrane on or under the oversite concrete will assist in preventing the floor being damp and feeling cold.
Type of Floor Timber floor - solid timber floor
- timber laminated floor Concrete floor (Solid Ground Floor)
Solid timber floor Solid hardwood floors are made of planks milled from a single piece of timber and originally used for structural purposes. Solid wood floors have a thicker wear surface and can be sanded and finished more times than an engineered wood floor. Wood actually is sponge material in micro structure. It is very sensitive to surroundings like humidity, dampness, temperature . Normally, expanding, shrinkage, color fading, more or less can not be avoided.
Timber laminated floor
A laminate is a thin layer of material laminated to a thicker material. In the case of laminate timber flooring, the laminate is a timber look-alike layer of paper. Laminate timber flooring consists of four layers: 4 - Base layer is a thin, water-proof film that stabilizes the board and adds an extra layer of waterproofing. 3 - Core layer is made of either water-resistant medium density fibreboard (MDF) or high density fibreboard (HDF). 2 - Third layer is the paper image of the design. In laminate timber flooring, this is a highly realistic four colour photograph of actual timber. 1 - Top layer is composed of a mixture of melamine and aluminium oxide.
Advantages:- ✓ Very affordable alternative to true timber, still offering the same ambience and colour to real timber. ✓ Incredibly hard wearing, yet warm under foot. Laminate is resistant to high heels and most furniture marks. ✓ Can be easily installed by any handyman, not just professional installers.
Concrete floor (Solid Ground Floor)
Solid Ground can be classified into; Hard core Blinding Concrete bed or slab Concrete block/inner wall Outer wall Hardcore infill; Damp-proof membrane Sand blinding Concrete slab
Concrete Floor :Hardcore
Purpose is to fill empty space occurs during excavation. Act against capillary action of moisture Usually laid in mm layers to the required depth If necessary, using roller to compact to prevent any unacceptable settlement.
Concrete Floor : Blinding
Use to even off the surface of hardcore if a damp-proof membrane is to be placed under the concrete bed. Generally consist of fine ash/sand/weak concrete It will prevent the damp-proof membrane from being punctured by the hardcore Provide a true surface from which the reinforcement can be position.
Concrete Floor : Concrete bed
Unreinforced or plane in situ concrete, 100 –150 mm thick Reinforced concrete, 150mm minimum.
TILING A tile is a manufactured piece of hard-wearing material such as ceramic, stone, metal, or even glass. Tiles are generally used for covering roofs, floors, walls, showers, or other objects such as tabletops. For the floor finishing, tile is commonly made of ceramic, porcelain, natural stone and mosaic.
Ceramic Tile Ceramic tiles are made from a blend of clays and silicones pressed into shape and then fired in a kiln to produce tough, hard wearing tiles that are resistant to water, spillages and stains. They don’t require any sealing or polishing and are easily wiped clean so are ideal for walls and floors, bathrooms and kitchens. For indoor use, they provide a tough decorative surface that looks great, and they are maintenance free as well as long lasting.
Porcelain Tile Porcelain tiles are beautiful to look at and are extremely hard wearing. They are made from pure materials fired at very high temperatures to produce tiles that are stain, scratch, shock, frost and chemical resistant. Porcelain tiles tend to need to be sealed before and after grouting to ensure they maintain their beautiful appearance.
Stone Tile made from naturally occurring substances, which means each tile has a slight variation in color and texture, giving them a very distinctive look. The most popular types of natural stone tiles are: Limestone – classical soft, warm creamy white in appearance Travertine – a form of limestone that comes in darker natural shades of beige, cream and soft brown Slate – formed from volcanic ash to produce a very durable stone in dark and earthy colours Marble – crystal structures produce an almost translucent appearance at the surface, for a classically luxurious look Granite – one of the hardest stones, extremely beautiful and available in many colours
Mosaic Tile Mosaic tiles come in sheets comprising many small tiles.
The sheets can be cut down to your required size or into strips to be used as a border or feature. They can be glazed or unglazed and come in a choice of materials and can be used in a variety of ways including: as a feature panel behind a basin or focal point in your kitchen as a tile border in the bathroom or kitchen Mosaic tiles are also useful for fitting to un-conforming shapes such as a purposely curved wall, wet room floor or even to an uneven surface.
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