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Electric and Hybrids Vehicles in Public Transportation Systems

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Presentation on theme: "Electric and Hybrids Vehicles in Public Transportation Systems"— Presentation transcript:

1 Electric and Hybrids Vehicles in Public Transportation Systems
Benedito Oliveira Sep. 2013

2 Objective Discuss the basics of Electric and Hybrid Buses in the application for public transport system. In this presentation electrification is considered as the use of Electrical Energy as Traction force. The source of electrical energy is the Traction Battery and the way to charge it can be from the vehicle itself (Hybrid) and or from the Grid (Plugin Hybrid, Electrical Vehicle). Describe the presentation focus, what is included and what is not

3 Agenda Why Electromobility? Hybrid and Electrical Powertrain concepts
Application Volvo Hybrid B215RH Benedito Oliveira 17-Jun-13

4 Way to electro mobility
City requests: Silent Fuel and energy efficient Low or zero emissions Sustainable energy sources

5 Drive distance with same available energy
Why Electro mobility? The main driver for electro mobility is “Energy Efficiency” Linked to energy efficiency is: Low to no tailpipe emissions Low interior and exterior noise Low CO2 emissions Low LCC Drive distance with same available energy Diesel 10 Km 48 Kwh Hybrid 14.2 Km * Technical limitations -Range -Charge Frequency -Charging time Plug-in Hybrid 25 Km * Full electric (Normal bus) 34 Km * Full electric (Light bus) 44 Km

6 The Conventional Drivetrain
Diesel Engine AMT gearbox D < 30 % ave 98 % D Energy Storage + - El. mach Power Electronics 95 % 98 % 90x90 % Advantage: High range Drawbacks: Low average efficiency, % No regenerative braking Idea to solution: - An electric vehicle

7 Energy use in city bus cycle

8 The Electric Vehicle D D Advantage: High average efficiency
95 % 95 % 98 % 98 % El. mach El. mach Advantage: High average efficiency Regenerative braking at Traction motor power Packaging Drawbacks: Low range High cost / kW tractive power 95 % 95 % Power Electronics Power Electronics Energy Storage + - Energy Storage + - 90x90 %

9 The Hybrid Vehicle ”PlugIn”- Charging
“Hybrid drives are drives that have at least two different primer movers and energy accumulators” Neumeyer, H. – Automotive transmissions 9

10 The Hybrid Vehicle Regenerative Braking Diesel Engine Efficiency
The battery is loaded using the Electrical Motor operating as generator (engine brake). Diesel Engine Efficiency Diesel engine is switched off in idle (traffic light, bus stops). The diesel engine will only operate when it is more efficient.

11 The Series Hybrid Vehicle
95 % 95 % 98 % >30% Diesel Engine El. mach El. mach 95 % 95 % Advantage: High range Drawbacks: Low ICE drive efficiency High drive system cost / kW All installed power NOT available on the wheels Idea to solution: - Connect ICE to wheels mechanically – The Parallell Hybrid Power Electronics Power Electronics Energy Storage + -

12 The Parallell Hybrid Vehicle
Energy Storage + - El. mach Diesel Engine Power Electronics Gearbox Advantage: High ICE drive efficiency due to hybrid control ICE downsizing Low system cost / kW tractive power High commonality with non-hybrid drive train Redundancy if electric drive malfunction Drawbacks: Lower max regenerative braking due to lower EM rating than series

13 Enhanced Performance with Parallel Drive
Energy Storage + - El. mach Diesel Engine Power Electronics Gearbox Both Together T Diesel Electric Drive rpm

14 How can Hybrid Vehicle help to improved efficiency and fuel consumption? (Volvo Hybrid)

15 ~ 35% Diesel Hybrid 7700 Diesel: 13.7 l/h 7700 Hybrid: 9.6 l/h
Saving: 4.1 l/h Example of fuel consumption: Hybrid vehicles from Volvo have an avegare of fuel consumption of about 35%. 7700 Diesel: 8.5 l/h 7700 Hybrid: 6.0 l/h Saving: 2.5 l/h

16 What are the major benefits and contraints in application?
Hybrid (++) Flexibility in application, no need of specific infraestructure. Except for plug-in hybrids. (+) Drive range: Full Hybrid: 35% more than a normal diesel bus Plug-in Hybrid: 60% more than a normall diesel bus (+) Noise: Smaller ICE, Start-stop functionality (-) Weight: Need for Battery, Electrical motor, Control System Electric (++) Zero emission (++) Noise free (--) Weight: Need for more battery than a hybrid vehicle, control system and bigger Electric Motor. (--) Need for infraestruture, charging stations (-) Drive range, need to recharge or have the grid. Benedito Oliveira 17-Jun-13

17 Optimised public transports by 2020 -Daily travel
School bus Fully electric BRT Hybrid bus Train Express bus +bio fuel Feeder Hybrid bus + plug-in Critical time ~60 minutes km/h Bus km/h Train -600 km/h Air Down town Hybrid bus Fully electric

18 Summary Future technology parallel development
Hybrid bus + Plug-in hybrids Diesel Fully electrical buses Drivers Noise Energy efficiency Synergies with cars and trucks Environmental impact less than Euro VI already today Less dependency on oil Low infra structure requirement

19 The path towards Green Efficiency
Hybrid Diesel Hybrid Plug-in City Bus Market Fully electric 2010 Future

20 Volvo Hybrid - Curitiba

21 VOLVO B215RH Volvo Engine 5L D5F 215HP * ESS Energy Storage System, incl Battery and control system Volvo I-Shift Transmission Li-ion ESS Electrical power steering Electrical Motor

22 Parallel integrated design
Electrical machine generator/motor 800 Nm, 120 kW / 160 Hp I-Shift gear box 12 gears Battery Li-ion 120 KW Power electronics AC/DC converter D5 Engine 800 Nm, 160 kW /215 Hp

23 Concept Volvo Hybrid Operation modes Characteristic T rpm
0 – 20km/h: Eletric Após 20 km/h: Hybrid Diesel engine off during stops T rpm Characteristic Highly Efficient Diesel Engine combined with Electrical Motor Together or separate Traction Diesel and Electrical coordinated to improve performance and decrease environmental impact

24 Summary – Hybrid & Electric Vehicle
Proportional reliance on ESS Proportional source of propulsion Source of propulsion ICE EM Proportional source of driving power Conventional ESS EM ICE Volvo Hybrid Full Hybrid Parallel Hybrid Volvo Plug-in Hybrid Plug-in Hybrid Electric ICE Fuel Cell Series Hybrid

25 Comparing Technologies - At constant speed
~95% ~98% ~81% ~43% ~95% ~95% Serial Hybrid - Efficiency at constant speed: 0.43 * 0.95 * 0.95 *0.95*0.98  36% ~95% ~81% ~95% ~98% ~43% Parallel Hybrid - Efficiency at constant speed: 0.43 * 0.98  42%  15% lower fuel consumption than serial hybrid

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